Population - Cypress Creek High School Human Geography

Report
Population
MAJOR
Population
Clusters:
Ecumene: The portion of Earth’s surface occupied by
permanent human settlement.
Why do people live in particular
areas?
Moderate climatenot too hot,
too cold,
not too dry,
or too wet
Proximity to water
and other large
landmasses.
Industrial revolutioncaused a population
shift during the 1700’s
and 1800’s. The big
shift is from rural to
urban areas.
Important Fact:
May, 2007, the first time in world
history where more people were
living in an urban area.
Definition of densities:
Arithmetic-total number of objects in an
area.
 Physiological-number of people supported
by a unit of arable land.
 Agricultural-farmers per unit of arable
land.

Density processing activity:

Write the following figures down in your
notes:
– US population: 314,000,000
– Total land area: 3,718,694
– Arable land as a percentage of total land
area: 18.01%
– Farmers as a percentage of the population:
0.7%
Work with a partner to compute
the following:
 Arithmetic
density (Divide the
population by land area.)
 Physiological density
 Agricultural density
Natural Increase:
CBR (crude birth rate)-total number of live
births in a year for every 1,000 people alive in a
society.
 CDR (crude death rate)-total number of
deaths in a year for every 1,000 people alive in
a society.
 NIR (natural increase rate)-the percentage
by which a population grows a year.(CBRCDR=NIR) per 1,000 and converted to a
percentage.
 Doubling time-the number of years it takes a
population to double.

Fertility

TFR (total fertility rate)-the average number or
children a woman will have throughout her
childbearing years.

The world’s rate is 2.6.
Mortality
IMR (Infant Mortality Rate): the annual
number of deaths under 1 year of age
compared with total live births (per 1,000)
LE (Life Expectancy) measures the average
number of years a newborn infant can expect
to live at current mortality levels.
Demographic Transition:
Stage 1

LOW GROWTH:
– pre-Industrial society
– Birth and death rates high and fluctuated
based on natural events, disease and drought.
– Population burst in 8000BC was because of
the AGRICULTURAL REVOLUTION, when
human first domesticated plants and animals.
Stage 2

HIGH GROWTH:
– After 1750 the world’s population suddenly
began to grow 10x’s faster.
– This is a result of the INDUSTRIAL
REVOLUTION.
– Helped improve agriculture, sanitation, and
personal hygiene.
– Did not diffuse to many countries in Africa,
Asia, and Latin America.
Stage 2 (con’t)

Late 20th century “push” into this stage
was caused by the MEDICAL
REVOLUTION.
– Medical technology diffused to LDC’s in Africa,
Asia, and Latin America.
Stage 3

MODERATE GROWTH:
– CBR begins to drop sharply because of
changes in social customs-fewer children,
economic changes-more people are living in
urban areas
– CDR continues to fall but slowly
Stage 4

LOW GROWTH:
– CBR=CDR
– NIR is approaching ZERO which is called
ZERO POPULATION GROWTH (ZPG)
– This is a TFR of approximately 2.1.
– Causes: social customs, women in the labor
force, increased leisure time, increase in
income,
Population pyramids
Age cohorts
 Age distribution
 Dependency ratio
 Sex ratio

World Population Growth:

Large-scale population growth in the
United States will be a result of
immigration from countries in Latin
America and Asia still in stage 2 or 3.

Countries in stage 2 of the demographic
transition are encouraged to move to
stage 3 rapidly to discourage rapid
population growth.
Malthus:
Explanations
 Neo-Malthusians
 Critics
 Theory vs. Reality

Declining Birth Rates:

Why?
– Education of women regarding reproductive
rights, etc.
– Effective contraceptive use
– Improved health-care programs
– Immunization programs
Epidemiological Transition:

What is it? Focuses on distinctive causes
of death in each stage of the demographic
transition.
Stages 1, 2
Stages 3, 4
Stage 5
Stage of re-emergence of infectious
diseases and parasites.

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