NOx Emissions - Capacity4Dev

Report
COPERT 4 Training
4. NOx Emissions
Projected emission factors
• Emission reductions for future vehicle
technologies generally follow the rule:
EFFuture
ESFuture

EFCurrent ESCurrent
• Limitation:
– Real-world behaviour does not (always) follow
emission standards
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Learning from our past…
Removal efficiency (%)
CO
90
Removal efficiency (%)
HC
Removal efficiency (%)
NOx
Removal efficiency (%)
PM
70
100
80
Actual
80
Copert 2
70
60
80
70
60
50
60
50
60
40
50
40
40
40
30
30
30
20
20
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HD Euro II
HD Euro I
D Euro 3
D Euro 2
G Euro 3
-20
0
G Euro 2
HD Euro II
HD Euro II
HD Euro I
D Euro 3
D Euro 2
G Euro 3
G Euro 2
HD Euro II
HD Euro I
D Euro 3
D Euro 2
G Euro 3
G Euro 2
0
HD Euro I
0
D Euro 3
0
10
D Euro 2
10
G Euro 3
10
20
G Euro 2
20
Runs executed (Germany)
• Run 1: Original RAINS calculation
• Run 2: COPERT 2 + RAINS Input
• Run 3: COPERT 2 + EC4MACS Input
• Run 4: COPERT 4 + RAINS Input
• Run 5: COPERT 4 + EC4MACS Input
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Fuel consumption - France
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NOx Emissions - France
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EGR Technology
Image taken from Volvo Trucks
1. Part of the exhaust is drawn through a bleed-off valve
2. This is cooled down in a heat exchanger
3. It is fed back to the intake air as an inert gas to absorb combustion
heat, decrease T and decrease NOx concentration
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SCR Technology
Image taken from Bosch
1. Injection of urea (NH2)2CO upstream of a hydrolysis catalyst
2. Urea hydrolysis (NH2)2CO +H2O2NH3 +CO2
3. NOx reduction through ammonia to form N2+H2O
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Heavy duty vehicles
• Emission
Level
NOx (g/km)
20,0
SCR
EGR
Emission Standard
15,0
10,0
5,0
0,0
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
• EF over ES
ratios
(Euro V over
Euro IV)
EF Euro V / EF Euro IV
Speed (km/h)
1,6
1,4
1,2
1
0,8
0,6
0,4
0,2
0
Real SCR/EGR Mix
Emission Standard
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
Speed (km/h)
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70
80
90
100
How this is modelled with COPERT
•
Both EGR and SCR considered in COPERT for Euro V
•
The user needs to provide the %EGR for Euro V trucks
•
Calculation:
EFEUROV = %EGR × EFEGR + (100-EGR%) × EFSCR
•
Remarks
– SCR is the dominant technology in the market (75% of sales)
– EGR in principle only selected by Scania, although Scania Euro V
trucks with SCR have appeared
– Euro VI trucks will be all equipped with SCR. Large ones will be
equipped with SCR+EGR
– No reliable Euro VI emission factors still in COPERT 4
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EGR vs SCR penetration
• Some values have been already filled in.
• These values originate from market surveys
and sales of Euro V trucks in 2008, 2009 and
first quarter of 2010. These values therefore
reflect our best knowledge for the year 2010.
• The user may change these values if better
information is available.
• On the basis of the this analysis, the EGR
ratio for 2008 was 26.6% and 24.6% for
2009.
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Impact over previous version
HDT Emissions NOx
Total Emissions NOx
140
90
80
Old Estimate
70
New Estimate
100
80
50
kt
kt
60
40
30
60
40
20
20
10
0
2000
Old Estimate
New Estimate
120
2010
2020
2030
0
2000
2010
Example: Austria
Max Effect 2015
HDTs: 15%
Road Transport: 7%
National Total: 3,8%
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2020
2030
Light Duty Vehicles
•
•
•
Graph obtained by TUG (S. Hausberger) study
Euro 5 based on limited sample (7 cars)
Not yet included in COPERT 4
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Impact on emission factors
Percentage difference over previous step
30.0
20.0
10.0
0.0
Euro 2
Euro 3
Euro 4
Euro 5
Euro 6
-10.0
-20.0
-30.0
-40.0
-50.0
COPERT
Emission Standard
First results
-60.0
• Much larger impact expected than correction for HDVs!!!!
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Summary
• HDVs
– COPERT emission factors reliable up to Euro V
– Euro V trucks need EGR/SCR ratio for accurate prediction
– No indications yet on Euro VI trucks
• LDVs
– COPERT emission factors reliable up to Euro 4
– Indications on Euro 5 diesel cars emitting much more NOx
than expected
– Euro 5 car emission factors expected summer 2012
– First indications on demo Euro 6 show much better
performance overall compared to Euro 5
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