Introduction to Environmental Geochemistry

Report
Periodic Table
GLY 4200 – Lecture 6 – Fall, 2014
1
Dmitri Ivanovich Mendeleev
• 1834-1907
• Russian Chemist
• "The properties of the
elements are a periodic
function of their
atomic masses"
2
Henry G.J. Moseley
• British chemist 1887-1915
• “Similar properties recur
periodically when elements
are arranged by increasing
atomic number”
3
Periodic Table
4
Second Row
Lithium 1s2 2s1
Beryllium 1s2 2s2
Boron 1s2 2s2 2p1
Carbon 1s2 2s2 2p2
Nitrogen 1s2 2s2 2p3
Oxygen 1s2 2s2 2p4
Fluorine 1s2 2s2 2p5
Neon 1s2 2s2 2p6
5
N = 2 Shell
• This completes the n = 2 shell
• The valance electrons are denoted using the
notation 2sx 2py
• The complete electronic configuration is 1s2
2sx 2py, which may also be expressed as
[He] 2sx 2py
• It also introduces the p block
6
Periodic Table Blocks
7
Third Row
Sodium [Ne] 3s1
Magnesium [Ne] 3s2
Aluminum [Ne] 3s2 3p1
Silicon [Ne] 3s2 3p2
Phosphorous [Ne] 3s2 3p3
Sulfur [Ne] 3s2 3p4
Chlorine [Ne] 3s2 3p5
Argon [Ne] 3s2 3p6
8
Periodic Table Blocks
9
Electronic
Energy
Levels
• Note that 4s
electrons are
lower energy
than 3d
10
Beginning of Fourth Row
• Potassium [Ar] 4s1
• Calcium [Ar] 4s2
11
Electronic
Energy
Levels
• Note that 3d
electrons are
lower energy
than 4p
12
First Transition Row
Scandium [Ar] 3d1 4s2
Titanium [Ar] 3d2 4s2
Vanadium [Ar] 3d3 4s2
Chromium [Ar] 3d5 4s1
Manganese [Ar] 3d5 4s2
Iron [Ar] 3d6 4s2
Cobalt [Ar] 3d7 4s2
Nickel [Ar] 3d8 4s2
Copper [Ar] 3d10 4s1
Zinc [Ar] 3d10 4s2
13
Periodic Table Blocks
14
4p Block
10
2
1
Gallium [Ar] 3d 4s 4p
10
2
2
Germanium [Ar] 3d 4s 4p
10
2
3
Arsenic [Ar] 3d 4s 4p
10
2
4
Selenium [Ar] 3d 4s 4p
10
2
5
Bromine [Ar] 3d 4s 4p
10
2
6
Krypton [Ar] 3d 4s 4p
15
Periodic Table Blocks
16
Electronic
Energy
Levels
• Note that 5s
electrons are
lower energy
than 4d
17
Second Transition Row
Yttrium [Kr] 4d1 5s2
Zirconium [Kr] 4d2 5s2
Niobium [Kr] 4d4 5s1
Molybdenum [Kr] 4d5 5s1
(Technetium) [Kr] 4d5 5s2
Ruthenium [Kr] 4d7 5s1
Rhodium [Kr] 4d8 5s1
Palladium [Kr] 4d10 5s0
Silver [Kr] 4d9 5s2
Cadmium [Kr] 4d10 5s2
18
Periodic Table Blocks
19
Electronic
Energy
Levels
• Note that 5p
and 6s
electrons are
lower energy
than 4f
20
5p Block
10
2
1
Indium [Kr] 4d 5s 5p
10
2
2
Tin [Kr] 4d 5s 5p
10
2
3
Antimony [Kr] 4d 5s 5p
10
2
4
Tellurium [Kr] 4d 5s 5p
10
2
5
Iodine [Kr] 4d 5s 5p
10
2
6
Xenon [Kr] 4d 5s 5p
21
Periodic Table Blocks
22
Electronic
Energy
Levels
• Note that 6s
electrons are
lower energy
than 4f or 5d
23
Row 6 Beginning
1
Cesium [Xe] 6s
2
Barium [Xe] 6s
1
Lanthanum [Xe] 5d 6s
2
24
Electronic
Energy
Levels
• Note that 4f
electrons are
lower energy
than 5d
25
Cerium [Xe] 4f1 5d1 6s2
Praseodymium [Xe] 4f3 5d0 6s2
Neodymium [Xe] 4f4 5d0 6s2
Promethium [Xe] 4f5 5d0 6s2
Samarium [Xe] 4f6 5d0 6s2
Europium [Xe] 4f7 5d0 6s2
Gadolinium [Xe] 4f7 5d1 6s2
Terbium [Xe] 4f9 5d0 6s2
Dysprosium [Xe] 4f10 5d0 6s2
Holmium [Xe] 4f11 5d0 6s2
Erbium [Xe] 4f12 5d0 6s2
Thulium [Xe] 4f13 5d0 6s2
Ytterbium [Xe] 4f14 5d0 6s2
Lutetium [Xe] 4f14 5d1 6s2
4f Block
26
Periodic Table Blocks
27
5d Block
14
2
2
Hafnium [Xe] 4f 5d 6s
14
3
2
Tantalum [Xe] 4f 5d 6s
14
4
2
Tungsten [Xe] 4f 5d 6s
14
5
2
Rhenium [Xe] 4f 5d 6s
14
6
2
Osmium [Xe] 4f 5d 6s
Iridium [Xe] 4f14 5d7 6s2
Platinum [Xe] 4f14 5d8 6s2
Gold [Xe] 4f14 5d9 6s2
Mercury [Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2
28
6p Block
Thallium [Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p1
Lead [Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p2
14
10
2
3
Bismuth [Xe] 4f 5d 6s 6p
14
10
2
4
Polonium [Xe] 4f 5d 6s 6p
Astatine [Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p5
Radon [Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p6
29
Periodic Table Blocks
30
5f Block
Actinium [Rn] 5f1 7s2
Thorium [Rn] 5f0 6d2 7s2
Protactinium [Rn] 5f2 6d1 7s2
Uranium [Rn] 5f3 6d1 7s2
Neptunium [Rn] 5f4 6d1 7s2
Plutonium [Rn] 5f6 6d0 7s2
Americium [Rn] 5f7 6d0 7s2
Curium [Rn] 5f7 6d1 7s2
Berkelium [Rn] 5f9 6d0 7s2
Californium [Rn] 5f10 6d0 7s2
Einsteinium [Rn] 5f11 6d0 7s2
Fermium [Rn] 5f12 6d0 7s2
Mendelevium [Rn] 5f13 6d0 7s2
Nobelium [Rn] 5f14 6d0 7s2
31
Periodic Table Blocks
32
Oxidation States of First Transition
Row Elements
Sc
Ti
V
Cr
Mn
Fe
Co
Ni
Cu
Zn
+3
+4
+5
+6
+7
+6
+5
+4
+3
+2
+3
+4
+5
+6
+5
+4
+3
+2
+2
+3
+4
+5
+4
+3
+2
+1
+1
+2
+3
+4
+3
+2
+1
+1
+2
+3
+2
+1
+1
+2
+1
+1
• States highlighted in red are the most common
33
REE Abundance
34
Europium Anomaly
• Figure 9-5. REE diagram
for 10% batch melting of
a hypothetical lherzolite
with 20% plagioclase,
resulting in a pronounced
negative Europium
anomaly
• From Winter, (2001) An
Introduction to Igneous
and Metamorphic
Petrology, Prentice Hall
35
Uranium and Thorium Decay
36
Periodic Table Blocks
37
Ionization Potential
Element
Be
Electronic
Size,
Configuration nm
(valance)
2s2
0.112
Ionization
Energy,
Cal/mol
215
Mg
3s2
0.160 176
Ca
4s2
0.197 141
Sr
5s2
0.215 125
Ba
6s2
0.222 119
38

similar documents