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Central Nervous System
• Brain
• Cerebrum
• Cerebellum
• Diencephalon
• Brain stem
• Spinal Cord
• __________ matter - cerebral
cortex; outer layer of the brain
• __________ matter - fibers
beneath cortex and corpus
callosum (fibers that connect
the two halves of cerebral
cortex)
• Area of brain responsible for
higher-order behaviors
(learning, intelligence,
awareness, memory,
communication, emotional
expression, etc..)
Cerebrum
Cerebrum
• _______ (gyrus): folds (rises) in cerebral
hemispheres
• _________ (sulcus): shallow grooves
• Divides the cerebral hemispheres into
lobes
• ____________: deep grooves separating
the gyri
• Longitudinal fissure: prominent groove
that divides cerebrum into right and left
cerebral hemispheres
• Corpus callosum: nerve fibers that
connect the left and right cerebral
hemispheres
Cerebellum
• Located just caudal to cerebrum
• Area of brain responsible for coordinated movement,
balance, posture, and complex reflexes
Diencephalon
• Passageway between brain stem
and cerebrum
• _________ to Corpus callosum
• Structures associated with
diencephalon:
• Thalamus, hypothalamus,
pituitary gland, pineal body
• major part of ____________
system
Brain Stem
• Connects brain with the ________ ________
• Medulla oblongata
• Pons
• Midbrain
• Area of brain responsible for basic (subconscious,
autonomic) functions of the body
• HR
• Breathing, coughing, sneezing,
• BP
• Many of the ________ ________originate from this area of brain
• _____________ tissue
layers that surround
brain and spinal cord
• Contain blood vessels,
fluid, and fat
• Supply nutrients and
oxygen to the superficial
tissues of the brain and
spinal cord
• Provide some
cushioning and
distribution of nutrients
for CNS
Meninges
Meninges
• Three layers:
1._______ _______- tough, fibrous
2._______ ______- delicate, spiderweb-like
3._______ _______- very thin; lies directly on surface of brain
and spinal cord
CSF—in subarachnoid space
(Contains CSF)
Cerebrospinal Fluid
• Fluid between _____________ ______________and in canals
and ventricles inside brain and central canal of spinal cord
• Provides _______________ function
• May play role in regulation of autonomic functions such as
respiration and vomiting
Blood-Brain Barrier
• Separates the capillaries in the brain from the nervous tissue
• Capillary walls in the brain have no ______________;
covered by cell membranes of glial cells
• Prevents many drugs, proteins, ions, and other molecules
from readily passing from the blood into the brain
Cranial Nerves
• 12 nerve pairs in PNS that originate directly from brain
• Numbered in Roman numerals from I through XII (1 through 12)
• Each nerve may contain axons of motor neurons, axons of
sensory neurons, or combinations of both
Spinal Cord
• ________________: central part of spinal cord
• Composed of gray matter
• Somas of neurons
• A lot of nerve processing occurs here (not just in brain)
• Central canal – center of medulla
Spinal Cord
• ______________: outer part of spinal cord
• White matter
• Myelinated and unmyelinated nerve fibers
• Surrounds the gray matter
Spinal Cord
• Dorsal and Ventral Nerve Roots emerge as Spinal Nerves from
between each pair of adjacent vertebrae
• Spinal nerve is a mix of sensory and motor neurons
• Dorsal nerve roots contain____________ fibers
• Ventral nerve roots contain ___________ fibers

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