Circulatory System

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CIRCULATORY SYSTEM
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What is the Circulatory System ?
• The system of the body responsible for
internal transport.
• The Circulatory System is a combination of
vessels and muscle that help control the flow
of blood around the body.
• This is known as CIRCULATION.
Cardiovascular System Overview
• Consists of the heart, blood, and blood vessels
• The heart pumps blood throughout the body
• Blood vessels transport blood throughout
the body
Combining Forms for
the Cardiovascular System
angi/o
angiogram
vas/o- anatomical vessel or duct
vascul/o
aort/o- (aorta)
vasospasm
vascular
aortic
Combining Forms for
the Cardiovascular System
arteri/o
arteriosclerosis
ather/o
atheroma
atri/o
atrioventricular
FUNCTIONS of the CIRCULATORY
SYSTEM
• .carries oxygen and food to cells in the body
• carries carbon dioxide and waste away from cells
• aids in coagulation process
• assists in defending body against disease
Parts of the Circulatory System
HEART – organ of the cardiovascular system that
contracts to pump blood through the blood
vessels; It is made up of cardiac muscle fibers.
BLOOD VESSELS – the closed system of tubes
that conducts blood throughout the body; The
three kinds of blood vessels are arteries, veins,
and capillaries
Blood-
The Heart
• Muscular Organ
• Hollow interior
• Pumps blood throughout the body
• Four chambers
• Upper chambers (2)
• Lower chambers (2)
HEART
Structure of the HEART
• Made of cardiac muscle- could be considered a muscle as
well as an organ
• 4 chambers(cavities) of the heart:
• 2 Atria- upper chambers of the heart (right atrium & left
atrium)
• 2 Ventricles- lower chambers of the heart(right ventricle &
left ventricle)
• Septum- divides the heart into right and left sides
Structure of the
Heart
(continued)
• Valves — Open and close with the heartbeat to maintain
one-way flow of blood through the heart
• tricuspid valve — located between right atrium and right ventricle
• mitral (bicuspid) valve — located between left atrium and left
ventricle
• pulmonary semilunar valve — opening from right ventricle to
pulmonary artery
• aortic valve — located between left ventricle and aorta
Layers of the Heart
• endocardium
• membrane that lines the interior cavities of the heart
• myocardium
• Thick, muscular layer
• epicardium
• Outer membrane
• Pericardium is the loose, protective sac that surrounds
and encloses the heart
Heart Chambers
• The right atrium receives blood returning from the body. It
is deoxygenated (blue).
• The right ventricle pumps blood to the lungs where the
blood receives oxygen.
• The left atrium receives the oxygen rich blood from the
lungs
• The left ventricle pumps oxygen rich blood to the body.
• Right atrium →Right ventricle→LUNGS→Left atrium→
Left ventricle→Body→
Structures of the Heart
Blood flow through heart
The Heart
Blood Circulation
Blood
• hem/o and hemat/o
• Four Components of Blood
• 1. Red Blood Cells (RBC)(45%)
• 2. White Blood Cells (WBC)
• 3. Platelets
• 4. Plasma (55%)
Blood Cells
• RBC – erythrocytes
• WBC – leukocytes
• Platelets - thrombocytes
Erythrocytes (RBC)
• erythr/o - red
• cyte – cell
• Hemoglobin - a blood
protein transports oxygen
• Reticulocyte - immature
erythrocyte
• What makes our blood RED?
• The iron in hemoglobin is what makes blood red.
Leukocytes
• leuk/o – white
• Protect the body against
invasion
• Part of the immune
system
Platelets (Thrombocytes)
• essential to blood coagulation (clotting)
• If there is an injury and blood comes in contact with
• any tissue other than the lining of the vessels, then
• the platelets stick together, form plug, seals wound.
•
Chemicals released, series of reactions, formation of
clot.
PLASMA
• plasma
• Mostly water
some plasma proteins
Antigen-Antibody Reactions
• Antigen - any substance that the body regards as foreign
(virus, bacterium, toxin)
• Antibody - a disease fighting protein developed by the
body in response to the presence of an antigen
Blood Groups
• Four blood groups based on presence or
absence of blood antigens
(agglutinogens) on surface of RBCs
• A - A antigen
• B - B antigen
• AB - both AB antigens
• O - no AB antigens
Blood Transfusions
• Blood Type
•
A
• B
• AB (universal receiver)
•
O (universal donor)
Can Donate to Group
A, AB
B, AB
AB
A, B, AB,O
Rh Factor
• Rh factor is antigen present on RBC of
85% of pop. of US.
• Rh positive and Rh negative
• Rh neg. pregnant woman may develop
antibodies to the Rh protein of her Rhpositive fetus.
Blood Vessels
• Arteries - vessels that carry blood from
the heart to arterioles
• Veins - vessels that carry blood to the
heart from the venules
• Capillaries - tiny vessels that join
arterioles and venules
Blood Vessels- Arteries
• arteries
• vessels that carry blood from the heart to arterioles
• aorta
• large artery branching from the left ventricle, distributes blood to the
rest of the body
• arterioles
• small vessels receive blood from the arteries
Veins
• Veins- carry blood back to the heart
from the venules
• Venules- small vessels that gather
blood from the capillaries into the
veins
Blood Pressure
• Force exerted by blood on the walls of the arteries, veins
and heart chambers
Determined by:
1. volume of blood
2. the space within the arteries and arterioles
3. the force of the heart contractions
Blood Pressure Terms
• Diastole
• period in the cardiac cycle when blood enters the relaxed ventricles
from the atria(bottom number on BP reading)
• Systole
• period in the cardiac cycle when the heart is in contraction and
blood is ejected through the aorta and pulmonary artery(top
number)
• The pulse you feel at your wrist or other pulse points is the surge of
blood caused by the heart’s contraction.
• Pulse rate normally equals heart rate.
Blood Pressure
Terms
(continued)
• hypotension
• low blood pressure
• hypertension
• high blood pressure
BLOOD Pressure
• Sphygmomanometer – device used to measure blood
pressure.
• Systole – the strongest pressure at the time the blood is
forced out of the ventricles
• Diastole – the pressure at rest, taken as the ventricles
refill with blood
Blood Pressure Determination
ASSIGNMENT
• DISEASES OF THE HEART
• 1. Cardiovascular Disease
• 2. Heart Attack
• 3. Angina
• 4. Cardiac Arrest
• 5. Arteriosclerosis/Atherosclerosis
• Include mechanism of injury/disease, signs/symptoms
and treatment
• BONUS: Rehabilitation

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