DNA Transcription and Translation

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DNA Transcription and Translation
• SC.912.L.16.5
– Describe the basic processes of protein synthesis;
transcription and translation.
– Explain how transcription and translation result in
the expression of genes.
– Demonstrates transcription given a DNA template.
– Demonstrate translation given an mRNA message
segment and codon table.
The Central Dogma
DNA  RNA  Protein
• Transcription- making mRNA from DNA
• Translation- making proteins from mRNA
– Amino acids link together to make proteins
Transcription
• Transcription is the
process of making a
complementary molecule
of mRNA (messenger
RNA) from a DNA
template. This takes place
in the nucleus.
• RNA polymerase unwinds,
reads and places the
correct nucleotide on the
mRNA strand according to
base pairing rules (A to U,
C to G, T to A).
RNA vs. DNA
• RNA
1. Single stranded
2. Contains the base
uracil
3. Contains ribose
• DNA
1. Double stranded
2. Contains the base
thymine
3. Contains deoxyribose
Translation
• Translation is the process
of reading the mRNA
molecule made during
transcription, and placing
the correct amino acid in
the polypeptide chain.
This occurs in the
cytoplasm.
• It involves the mRNA, a
ribosome, tRNA (transfer
RNA), and amino acids.
The Genetic Code
• The genetic code is the
universal system that
assigns amino acids
according to codons.
• A codon is a series of 3
bases on the mRNA
molecule that codes for
an amino acid.
• https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zwibgNG
e4aY
1. The diagram shows a
vital cell process.
Which process is
illustrated in this diagram?
a. Replication
b. Transcription
c. Translation
d. Fermentation
2. Protein synthesis is a process that takes place within cells. Which of
the following best compares the location or locations in the cell in
which transcription and translation take place?
a. Transcription takes place in the cytoplasm; translation takes place in
the nucleus.
b. Translation takes place in the cytoplasm; transcription takes place in
the nucleus.
c. Both transcription and translation take place in the cytoplasm.
d. Both transcription and translation take place in the nucleus.
3. Transcription is a process that occurs in cells.
Which is the best description of transcription?
a. DNA is copied.
b. A RNA template is used to make proteins.
c. A DNA template is used to generate RNA.
d. A DNA sequence is used to activate enzymes in a
cell.

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