DNA Transcription and Translation • SC.912.L.16.5 – Describe the basic processes of protein synthesis; transcription and translation. – Explain how transcription and translation result in the expression of genes. – Demonstrates transcription given a DNA template. – Demonstrate translation given an mRNA message segment and codon table. The Central Dogma DNA RNA Protein • Transcription- making mRNA from DNA • Translation- making proteins from mRNA – Amino acids link together to make proteins Transcription • Transcription is the process of making a complementary molecule of mRNA (messenger RNA) from a DNA template. This takes place in the nucleus. • RNA polymerase unwinds, reads and places the correct nucleotide on the mRNA strand according to base pairing rules (A to U, C to G, T to A). RNA vs. DNA • RNA 1. Single stranded 2. Contains the base uracil 3. Contains ribose • DNA 1. Double stranded 2. Contains the base thymine 3. Contains deoxyribose Translation • Translation is the process of reading the mRNA molecule made during transcription, and placing the correct amino acid in the polypeptide chain. This occurs in the cytoplasm. • It involves the mRNA, a ribosome, tRNA (transfer RNA), and amino acids. The Genetic Code • The genetic code is the universal system that assigns amino acids according to codons. • A codon is a series of 3 bases on the mRNA molecule that codes for an amino acid. • https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zwibgNG e4aY 1. The diagram shows a vital cell process. Which process is illustrated in this diagram? a. Replication b. Transcription c. Translation d. Fermentation 2. Protein synthesis is a process that takes place within cells. Which of the following best compares the location or locations in the cell in which transcription and translation take place? a. Transcription takes place in the cytoplasm; translation takes place in the nucleus. b. Translation takes place in the cytoplasm; transcription takes place in the nucleus. c. Both transcription and translation take place in the cytoplasm. d. Both transcription and translation take place in the nucleus. 3. Transcription is a process that occurs in cells. Which is the best description of transcription? a. DNA is copied. b. A RNA template is used to make proteins. c. A DNA template is used to generate RNA. d. A DNA sequence is used to activate enzymes in a cell.