Approaches to POS Tagging

Report
Part of Speech Tagging
Importance
Resolving ambiguities by assigning lower
probabilities to words that don’t fit
Applying to language grammatical rules to parse
meanings of sentences and phrases
Part of Speech Tagging
Determine a word’s lexical class based on context
Approaches to POS Tagging
Approaches to POS Tagging
• Initialize and maintain tagging criteria
– Supervised: uses pre-tagged corpora
– Unsupervised: Automatically induce classes by
probability and learning algorithms
– Partially supervised: combines the above approaches
• Algorithms
– Rule based: Use pre-defined grammatical rules
– Stochastic: use HMM and other probabilistic algorithms
– Neural: Use neural nets to learn the probabilities
Example
The man ate the fish
on the boat in the
morning
Word
Tag
The
Determiner
Man
Noun
Ate
Verb
The
Determiner
Fish
Noun
On
Preposition
The
Determiner
Boat
Noun
In
Preposition
The
Determiner
Morning
Noun
Word Class Categories
Note: Personal pronoun often PRP, Possessive Pronoun often PRP$
Word Classes
– Open (Classes that frequently spawn new words)
• Common Nouns, Verbs, Adjectives, Adverbs.
– Closed (Classes that don’t often spawn new words):
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
prepositions: on, under, over, …
particles: up, down, on, off, …
determiners: a, an, the, …
pronouns: she, he, I, who, ...
conjunctions: and, but, or, …
auxiliary verbs: can, may should, …
numerals: one, two, three, third, …
Particle: An uninflected item with a grammatical function but without
clearly belonging to a major part of speech. Example: He looked up the word.
The Linguistics Problem
• Words often are in multiple
classes.
• Example: this
– This is a nice day
= preposition
– This day is nice
= determiner
– You can go this far
= adverb
• Accuracy
– 96 – 97% is a baseline for new
algorithms
– 100% impossible even for
human annotators
Unambiguous: 35,340
2 tags 3,760
3 tags
264
4 tags
61
5 tags
12
6 tags
2
7 tags
1
(Derose, 1988)
Rule-Based Tagging
• Basic Idea:
– Assign all possible tags to words
– Remove tags according to a set of rules
o Example rule:
IF word+1 is
adjective, adverb, or quantifier ending a sentence
IF word-1 is not a verb like “consider” THEN
eliminate non-adverb
ELSE eliminate adverb
– There are more than 1000 hand-written rules
Stage 1: Rule-based tagging
• First Stage:
FOR each word
Get all possible parts of speech using a morphological analysis algorithm
• Example
PRP
She
VBN
VBD
promised
TO
to
NN
RB
JJ
VB
back
DT
the
VB
NN
bill
Stage 2: Rule-based Tagging
• Apply rules to remove possibilities
• Example Rule:
IF VBD is an option and VBN|VBD follows “<start>PRP”
THEN Eliminate VBN
VBN
PRP VBD
She promised
TO
to
NN
RB
JJ
VB
back
DT
the
VB
NN
bill
Stochastic Tagging
• Use probability of certain tag occurring given various
possibilities
• Requires a training corpus
• Problems to overcome
– Algorithm to assign type for words that are not in corpus
– Naive Method
• Choose most frequent tag in training text for each word!
• Result: 90% accuracy
HMM Stochastic Tagging
• Intuition: Pick the most likely tag based on context
• Maximize the formula using a HMM
– P(word|tag) × P(tag|previous n tags)
• Observe: W = w1, w2, …, wn
• Hidden: T = t1,t2,…,tn
• Goal: Find the part of speech that most likely
generate a sequence of words
Transformation-Based Tagging (TBL)
(Brill Tagging)
• Combine Rule-based and stochastic tagging approaches
– Uses rules to guess at tags
– machine learning using a tagged corpus as input
• Basic Idea: Later rules correct errors made by earlier rules
– Set the most probable tag for each word as a start value
– Change tags according to rules of type:
IF word-1 is a determiner and word is a verb
THEN change the tag to noun
• Training uses a tagged corpus
– Step 1: Write a set of rule templates
– Step 2: Order the rules based on corpus accuracy
TBL: The Algorithm
• Step 1: Use dictionary to label every word
with the most likely tag
• Step 2: Select the transformation rule which
most improves tagging
• Step 3: Re-tag corpus applying the rules
• Repeat 2-3 until accuracy reaches threshold
• RESULT: Sequence of transformation rules
TBL: Problems
• Problems
– Infinite loops and rules may interact
– The training algorithm and execution speed is slower than HMM
• Advantages
– It is possible to constrain the set of transformations with “templates”
IF tag Z or word W is in position *-k
THEN replace tag X with tag
–
–
–
–
Learns a small number of simple, non-stochastic rules
Speed optimizations are possible using finite state transducers
TBL is the best performing algorithm on unknown words
The Rules are compact and can be inspected by humans
• Accuracy
– First 100 rules achieve 96.8% accuracy
First 200 rules achieve 97.0% accuracy
Neural Network
Digital approximation of biological neurons
Digital Neuron
I
N
P
U
T
S

W=Weight
W
Neuron
W
Σ
f(n)
W
Activation
W
Function
Outputs
Transfer Functions
Output
1
SIG M O ID : f ( n ) 
1
1 e
0
Input
L IN E A R : f ( n )  n
n
Networks without feedback
Multiple Inputs and
Single Layer
Multiple Inputs and
layers
Feedback (Recurrent Networks)
Feedback
Supervised Learning
Inputs from the
environment
Expected
Output
Actual System
Actual
Output
+
Σ
Neural Network
-
Training
Error
Run a set of training data through the network and compare the
outputs to expected results. Back propagate the errors to update
the neural weights, until the outputs match what is expected
Multilayer Perceptron
Definition: A network of neurons in which the output(s) of
some neurons are connected through weighted connections to
the input(s) of other neurons.
Inputs
First Hidden
layer
Second Hidden
Layer
Output
Layer
Backpropagation of Errors
Function Signals
Error Signals

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