Elements of Surveying (CEL271)

Report
Elements of Surveying (CEL271)
Gazala Habib
Dept. of Civil Engg.
Contact:
Room No. 303, Block-4
E-mail: [email protected]
Phone: 1192 (Office)
Books
•
•
•
•
•
Surveying by S K Duggal, Tata McGraw Hill, Vol 1
Surveying: Theory and practices, S. S Bhavikatti
Surveying and levelling by N. N Basak
Plane surveying A M Chandra
Surveying (Vol-1) by B. C. Punmia, Ashok K. Jain and Arun K.
Jain
Laboratory
• Lab timing for all group: 2-4 pm (MondayFriday)
• Room Number: Block IV, 335
• Contact: Mr. Rajeev Sharma (Phone: 6442)
Attendance policy
• All students must attend all classes. Attendance record will be maintained
and will be periodically uploaded through the UG web-site.
• Lectures: 70 marks for attendance, surprise quizzes, homework,
assignments and exams
• Laboratory: 30 marks for attendance, surprise quizzes, notebook, viva
• If attendance of the student is greater than 90%, result of the best three
quizzes will be considered else average of all quizzes will be considered.
• If a student’s attendance is less than 75%, the student will be awarded one
grade less than the actual grade that he(she) has earned. For example, a
student who has got A grade but has attendance less than 75% will be
awarded A- grade.
Marks, Exam, Assignment
Lectures
Lab
Minor 1
10
Viva
10
Minor 2
10
Surprise quiz
10
Major
30
Notebook
5
Surprise Quiz (any number) + Assignments +
Homework
10
Attendance >=
90%
5
Attendance (>=90%) + class participation (>=80% of
time) means out of 10 question asked in class at least
8 should be correct
10
Attendance Policy
…Contd.
• If a student has a valid medical certificate (from IITD hospital or a registered
medical practitioner) because of which he/she has missed an evaluation
component the compensation will be decided and put on notice board.
• If a student has missed any of the minors due to medical reasons or family
emergency alternatives will be arranged. For example if a person misses
minor-1 because of health problem he/she should produce the medical
certificate immediately after re-joining the class and the re-minor will be
conducted last working day of next week after minor-1.
• If a student misses Major examination he should apply for an I-grade or an
extended-I grade. HOD will approve I-grade based on his/her assessment of
the situation. In that case examination must be conducted within 10 days of
completion of the majors. Dean, UGS will award the extended-I grade and in
that case examination must be conducted within the first ten working days of
the next semester.
Marks policy
•
Full marks will be awarded for correct procedure and correct answer. 3/4 marks for
correct procedure but wrong answer. Zero marks for wrong procedure and correct
answer.
•
All evaluation components including Minor and Major scripts will be shown to the
students. Within 7-15 days after exam along with the model answer.
•
The date and time for showing script will be displayed in the notice board. The
schedule will be group wise.
•
Grading of a course will be finalized and displayed after following the process of
moderation.
•
THEREFORE, NO INFORMATION WILL BE GIVEN ABOUT GRADING BEFORE THE
MODERATION COMMITTEE’S MEETING, AND NO CHANGES WILL BE DONE ONCE
THE GRADE IS DISPLAYED AFTER IMPLEMENTATION OF MODERATION
COMMITTEE’S SUGGESTIONS. [PLEASE DO NOT BEG TO CHANGE THE GRADE
ONCE IT IS FINILIZED AFTER MODERATION COMMITTEE’S MEETING]
Surveying
•What is surveying?
Surveying may be defined as the science of determining the
position, in three dimensions, of natural and man-made features
on or beneath the surface of the Earth. These features may then
be represented in analog form as a contoured map, plan or
chart, or in digital form as a three dimensional mathematical
model stored in the computer.
Objective of course
• To understand the basic concept of surveying
• Apply the surveying concept and equipments in real life
• You should be able to use a set of tools to solve the problems
in an optimal way
• You should be able to understand the pitfalls (sources of
error) to avoid them
Application of surveying in civil
Engineering
• The planning and design of all Civil Engineering projects such as
construction of highways, bridges, tunnels, dams etc are based upon
surveying measurements.
• Project of any magnitude is constructed along the lines and points
established by surveying. Thus, surveying is a basic requirement for all Civil
Engineering projects.
• Other principal works in which surveying is primarily utilized are
• • to fix the national and state boundaries;
• • to chart coastlines, navigable streams and lakes;
• • to establish control points
• • to execute hydrographic and oceanographic charting and mapping; and
• • to prepare topographic map of land surface of the earth.
Instruments…
Levelling Staff
Tilting Level
Dumpy Level
Telescope is fixed cannot be tilted
or moved
Digital level
Telescope can be tilted slightly
about its horizontal axis with the
help of tilting screw.
The line of collimation is made
horizontal for each observation
with the help of tilting screw
Instrument can be levelled automatically
within a certain tilt range
Levelling staff
Sewer Projects
1. Firm under contract
2. Preliminary studies
1.
2.
3.
4.
General layout map
Buildings located on general layout
Treatment site search
Preliminary paper layout
1. Make sure every building and potential building site
can be served
2. Manhole system placed on general layout
Sewer Projects
5.
Preliminary filed work
1.
Preliminary profiles
1.
2.
3.
4.
2.
BM system established
Manholes set
Profiles run
Basement elevations acquired
Design mapping
1. Final plans
3.
4.
5.
Treatment area
Boundary survey
Complete topo of area
Sewer Projects
3. Design process
1.
Sewer line design
1.
Preliminary profiles drawn
1. Basement elevations plotted
2.
3.
4.
Manholes placed on profiles
Slope between manholes computed
Problem areas – alternate service routes selected
1. Manholes set in field
2. Profiles run
3. Revert to 3A
Sewer Projects
2. Treatment plant design
1. Topo map prepared
2. Type system verified
3. Treatment system sized based on existing and
projected population
4. System designed
3. Plans drafted
1. Sewer plans normally prepared on plan/profile sheets
Sewer Projects
2. Treatment plant drawn using plan sheets and cross
sections
3. Quantities computed
4. Specifications
1. Written instructions on how every item to be built
2. Include contract documents and bid proposal
4. Bidding procedure
1. Notice of bid advertised on local paper
2. Pre-bid meeting
Sewer Projects
3. Bidding
1.
2.
3.
4.
Each contractor submits sealed bid
Bids opened and tabulated
Engineer reviews proposals
Engineer recommends which bid to accept
4. Contract awarded
Sewer Projects
5. Construction
1. Surveying
1. Contractor required to hire surveyor for stakeout
2. Manholes referenced
3. Staking methods
1. Batter board method
2. Laser method
4. Measurement of quantities
6. As Built
Water distribution systems
1. Put under contract – water district formed
2. Preliminary studies
1.
2.
3.
4.
General layout prepared
Water district signs up users
Water source located
Waterlines placed on general layout
1. Hydraulic gradient plotted from USGS topo
Water distribution systems
5.
Pump station and water storage sites
1.
2.
3.
Property acquired by perpetual easement or purchased
Boundary survey performed for each site
Topo each site
3. Field work
1.
Plan preparation
1.
Normally photogrammetrically
1. Flight plan sent on general layout
2. Take photos and post measure horizontal control
3. Plan sheets marked on photos using template
Water distribution systems
2. Waterlines placed on plan sheets
2. Crossings and easements
1. Every location where waterline crosses paved road,
railroad – has to be topo, cross sectioned, and tied to
nearest stationing or milepost
2. Crossings plotted and permits applied for – railroads,
state DOT, township and county roads
3. Easement descriptions prepared
Water distribution systems
4. Final design
1. All waterlines and appurtenances on plans,
easements, acquired and in docket form, rock
excavation on plans
1. Quantities computed
2. System driven to make sure nothing missed
2. Tanks and P.S.
1. Designed and sized
2. Quantities computed
Water distribution systems
5. Bidding
6. Construction
1.
Water distribution system
1.
Waterline stakeout
1. Each easement plotted on plans
2. Crossings as permitted staked
2.
2.
Quantities
Tanks and PS
1.
2.
Foundation staked
Must be checked for plumb
7. As built
Architectural Projects
1. Firm Under contract
2. Preliminary fieldwork
1.
Boundary survey
1.
2.
Description provided
Fieldwork
1. Monument search, traverse site
2. Compute data and analysis
3. Final stakeout
3.
4.
Easement and encroachment search
Plat of survey
Architectural Projects
2. Topo – grid method most common
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Grid pattern 25’ – 100’
BM – USGS
Entire tract topo and adjacent areas to access
Utilities – nearest tied in
Include all objects above, on or below, ground
Prepare topo map
Field check map
Architectural Projects
3. Construction
1. Control
1. If large building – you may want to establish TBM’s on
control Mon.
2. Stakeout
1. Convert architects dimensions to engineering
2. Layout clearing and excavation limits
3. Layout underground piping
Architectural Projects
4.
5.
6.
7.
Layout footings and foundations
Layout building corners and supports
Locate roads and parking areas
Locate lighting and other project extras
3. As built
Structure and Terrain Movement
•
Used to monitor:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Movement of buildings ( x, y, and z)
Movement of bridges
Movement of dams
Landslides and earthquakes
Amusement park rides
Structure and Terrain Movement
•
•
Description – error within system must be
less than smallest movement to be observed
2 groups of monuments installed
1. Reference or control monuments
2. Deformation or movement monuments
Structure and Terrain Movement
• Control – generally concrete pillars extending
3-4 feet out of ground with tribrach
permanently attached
• Movement monuments – for earthquake or
landslide may be similar deep monuments
Structure and Terrain Movement
•
Equipment:
1.
2.
3.
4.
GPS
Turned angles
Angle/Distance
Leveling
•
Classification of surveying: Based on
function
Primary division based on shape of the earth
– Geodic survey: if the area surveyed is more than 1000 km2 geodic
surveying must be employed
– Plane survey
• Classification based on function of survey
– Control surveying: establishing the horizontal and vertical positions of
widely spaced control points using geodic method.
– Land surveying: to determine the boundaries and areas of parcel of
land.
– City surveying: urban planning
– Topographic surveys: depiction of topography of a region. Including
natural and man made features
– Engineering survey: for laying out engineering projects.
– Route survey: planning designing and execution of highways, railways,
canals, pipelines etc.
– Construction surveys: required to establish points lines, grades and for
staking out engineering works after the plans have been prepared and
the structural design has n=been done.
Classification of surveying: Based on
function
– Astronomic survey: are conducted for the determination of
latitudes, longitudes, azimuths, local time etc. for various
places by observing heavenly bodies such as suns and stars.
– Geological survey: to determine the strata of the earth’s crust
for geological studies.
– Archaeological surveys: unearthing relics of antiquity
– Mine surveys: exploration of mineral deposits, and to guide
tunnelling and other operations associated with mining.
– Satellite surveys: to establish intercontinental, interdatum and
interisland geodic ties over the world by making satellite
observations.
– Military surveys: conducted for military purpose.
Classification of surveying: Based on
instruments
• Chain survey: only linear measurements are made with chain or tape no angular
measurements are taken
• Compass survey: horizontal angles are measured with the help of magnetic
compass
• Plane table survey: The map is prepared in the field itself by determining the
directions of various lines making linear measurements, and plotting the details
on paper using a plane table
• Levelling survey: this type of survey is used to determine the elevations and
relative heights of the points with the help of instrument known as level.
• Theodolite survey: theodolite survey is primarily used in traversing and
triangulation for providing controls. The horizontal and vertical angles are
measured with the help of theodolite.
• Tacheometric survey: a special type of theodolite known as tacheometer, is used
to determine horizontal and vertical distances directly.
• Photogrammetric survey: measurements are made with help photograph.
• EDM Survey: linear measurements are made with the help of EDM instruments.
Principles of surveying
• Fixing the points in relation to points already
fixed
http://nptel.iitm.ac.in/courses/Webcoursecontents/IITROORKEE/SURVEYING/modules/module1/htm
lpage/9.htm#
Principle of surveying
• Working from whole to part:
• to localize the errors and
• to control the accumulation of errors.
– Establish primary control points with high precision
– Establish secondary and tertiary control points within
the system boundary and form triangle/rectangle may
be with less precision.
– This will help in localizing the error and to control the
propagation of error.
Working from whole to part
Errors

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