AttributeGrammars

Report
Attribute Grammars
Prabhaker Mateti
ACK: Assembled from many sources
About Attribute Grammars
• Attribute grammars (AGs) add semantic info
on parse tree nodes
• Used for semantic checking and other
compile-time analyses, e.g., type checking in a
compiler
• Used for translation, e.g., parse tree to
assembly code
• A traversal of the parse tree and the
computation of information.
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Attribute Grammars: Definition
• An attribute grammar is a context-free grammar
G = (S, N, T, P) with the following additions.
• For each terminal and non-terminal X, disjoint sets S(X)
synthesized attributes and I(X) inherited attributes:
– A(X) = S(X) ∪ I(X)
• X0 ::= X1 ... Xn
• S(X0) = f(I(X0), A(X1), ... , A(Xn))
• I(Xj) = g(A(X0), ... , A(Xn))
– depends on the attribute value at parent and those of siblings.
• Each rule has a set of predicates/ conditions to check for
attribute consistency: P( A(X0), A(X1), A(X2), …, A(Xn) )
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Example-1: Binary Numbers
1.
2.
3.
4.
N
N
N
N
•
CFGs do not provide
semantics.
CGGs provide only
syntax, that too without
context-sensitive details
•
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::=
::=
::=
::=
0
1
N0
N1
1. N.val:= 0
2. N.val:= 1
3. N.val:= 2*N.rhs.val
4. N.val:= 2*N.rhs.val+1
• N.val is an attribute
associated with node N of
the parse tree
• N.rhs Node
corresponding to the rhs
• Synthesized Attributes
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Example-2: Type Checking
1. E ::= n
2. E ::= x
3. E ::= E1 + E2
4. E ::= E1 * E2
• Semantics we wish to
add
– n is an int, x is a real.
– op + returns an int if
both the operands are
int, otherwise a real.
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1. E.type := int
2. E.type := real
3. if E1.type = E2.type
then E.type := E1.type
else E.type := real
fi
•
•
Item 3 derived version
of the semantics
Static semantics
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Example-3: Assignment Arithmetic
•
•
•
•
stm ::= var := exp | stm; stm
exp ::= var + var | var
var ::= A | B | C
synthesized actual-type for
var and exp
• inherited expected-type for
exp
• lookup (var.string) a helper
function; gives the actual
type of A, B, C
• exp ::= var1 + var2
– subscripts added
• exp.actual-type
:= var1.actual-type
• exp.expected-type
– from parent in the parse tree
• Predicates:
– var1.actual-type
== var2.actual-type
– exp.expected-type
== exp.actual-type
– var ::= A | B | C
• var.actual-type
:= lookup (var.string)
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Inherited Attributes Example
• Declaration and Use
{ int i, j, k; i := i + j + j; }
• assign ::= var := exp
– env: environment
– var.env := assign.env
– exp.env := assign.env
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Information Flow
inherited
computed
available
synthesized
...
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...
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Attribute Value Computation
• If all attributes were inherited, the tree could be decorated
in top-down order. Inherited Attributes pass information
– down the parse tree, or
– from left siblings to the right siblings
• If all attributes were synthesized, the tree could be
decorated in bottom-up order. Synthesized Attributes pass
information up the parse tree
• In many cases, both kinds of attributes are used, and it is
some combination of top-down and bottom-up that must
be used.
• Initially, there are intrinsic attributes on the leaves
• If a condition in a tree evaluates to false, an error occurs.
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Prolog for Example-2
1.
2.
3.
4.
type(n, int).
type(x, real).
type(+(E, F), T) :- type(E, T), type(F, T).
type(+(E, F), real)
:- type(E, T1), type(F, T2), T1 \= T2.
5. Type Checking ?- type(+(n, x), real).
6. Type Inference ?- type(+(n, x), T).
• (Definite Clause Grammars)
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Example-4: Fractions in Binary
1. F ::= . N
2. N ::= 0
3. N ::= 1
4. N ::= 0 N
5. N ::= 1 N
• Synthesized: val, value
• Inherited: pow, the
number of bits between
left of a non-terminal
and the binary point
• Nr: N-right, Nl: N-left
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1:
2:
3:
4:
4:
5:
F.val:= N.val; N.pow:= 1
N.val := 0
N.val := (1/2^N.pow)
Nl.val := Nr.val
Nr.pow := 1 + Nl.pow
Nl.Val :=
Nr.val+(1/2^N.pow)
5: Nr.pow := 1 + Nl.pow
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Ex4: Synthesized Attributes Only
• Binary Fractions, same
grammar as before:
1. F ::= . N
2. N ::= 0
3. N ::= 1
4. N ::= 0 N
5. N ::= 1 N
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• Alternate computation
based on synthesized
attribute val only
1: F.val := N.val / 2
2: N.val := 0
3: N.val := 1
4: N.val := N.val / 2
5: N.val := N.val / 2 + 1
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Example-5: Distinct Identifiers
• Compute the number of distinct identifiers in
a straight-line program.
• Semantics specified in terms of sets of
identifiers.
• Attributes
– var
– exp
– stm
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 id
 ids
 ids  num
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Example-5: Distinct Identifiers
• exp::= var
– exp.ids = { var.id }
• exp::= exp1 + exp2
– exp.ids = exp1.ids U exp2.ids
• stm::= var:= exp
– stm.ids = { var.id } U exp.ids
– stm.num = | stm.ids |
• stm::= stm1;stm2
– stm.ids = stm1.ids U stm2.ids
– stm.num = | stm.ids |
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Example-5: Using Lists
• Attributes
–  envi: list of vars in preceding context
–  envo: list of vars for following context
–  dnum: number of new variables
• exp ::= var
exp.envo =
if member(var.id, exp.envi)
then exp.envi
else cons(var.id, exp.envi)
fi
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Example-5: Using Lists
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
exp ::= exp1 + exp2
 envi  envi  envi
 envo  envo  envo
 dnum  dnum  dnum
exp1.envi := exp.envi
exp2.envi := exp1.envo
exp.envo := exp2.envo
exp.dnum := length(exp.envo)
exp.envo = append-sans-duplicates(exp1.envo,
exp2.envo )
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Complete Evaluation Rules
• Synthesized attribute associated with N:
– Each alternative in “N ::= …” should contain a rule for
evaluating the Synthesized attribute.
• Inherited attribute associated with N:
– For every occurrence of N in “… ::= … N …” there must
be a rule for evaluating the Inherited attribute.
• Whenever you create an attribute grammar (in
home work/ exams), make sure it satisfies these
requirements.
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One Pass Attribute Computation
• To enable one-pass top-down left-to-right
computation of the attributes:
– each inherited attribute of the right-hand side symbol
can depend on all the attributes associated with
preceding right-hand side symbols and the inherited
attribute of the left-hand side non-terminal.
– Similarly, the synthesized attribute of the left-hand
side non-terminal can depend on all the attributes
associated with all the right-hand side symbols and
the inherited attribute of the left-hand side nonterminal.
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More than Context-Free Power
• LABC = { a^nb^nc^n | n > 0 }
– Unlike LAB = { a^nb^n | n > 0 }, here we need explicit
counting of a’s, b’s and c’s
• LWCW = { wcw | w ∈{a, b}* }
– The “flavor” of checking whether identifiers are
declared before their uses
• LABC, LWCW cannot be defined with a contextfree grammar
• Syntax analysis (i.e., parser based on CFGs)
cannot handle semantic properties
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LABC = { a^n b^n c^n | n > 0 }
• ls ::= as bs cs
– ExpNb(bs) := Na(as); ExpNc(cs) := Na(as)
• as ::= a | a as1
– Na(as) := 1; Na(as) := Na(as1) + 1
• bs ::= b | b bs1
– cond(ExpNb(bs) = 1); ExpNb(bs1) := ExpNb(bs) - 1
• cs ::= c | c cs1
– Cond(ExpNc(cs) = 1); ExpNc(cs1) := ExpNc(cs) – 1
• Na:
• ExpNb:
• ExpNc:
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synthesized by as
inherited from bs
inherited from cs
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Uses of Attribute Grammars
• Compiler Generation
– Top-down Parsers (LL(1))
• FIRST sets, FOLLOW sets, etc
– Code Generation Computations
• Type, Storage determination, etc.
• Databases
– Optimizing Bottom-up Query Evaluation (Magic
Sets)
• Programming and Definitions
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Uses of Inherited Attributes
• ex: 5.0 + 2
– need to generate code to coerce int 2 to real 2.0
• Determination of un-initialized variables
• Determination of reachable non-terminals
• Evaluation of an expression containing
variables
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Use of Attribute Grammars
• Useful for expressing arbitrary cycle-free computational
walks over CFG derivation trees
– Synthesized and inherited attributes
– Conditions to reject invalid parse trees
– Evaluation order depends on attribute dependencies
• Realistic applications:
– type checking
– code generation
• “Global” data structures must be passed around as
attributes
• Any container data structure (sets, etc.) can be used
• The evaluation rules can call auxiliary/helper functions but
the functions cannot have side effects
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References
• T. K. Prasad, Attribute Grammars and their
Applications, In: Encyclopedia of Information
Science and Technology, pp. 268-273, 2008.
Attribute-Grammars.pdf
• PL Text Book Sections
– Pagan: 2.1, 2.2, 2.3, 3.2
– Stansifer: 2.2, 2.3
– Slonneger and Kurtz: 3.1, 3.2
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