Ancient Greece 1750 B.C. – 133 B.C. Key Thoughts • The Ancient Greeks adapted ideas from earlier cultures. • They also developed their own ideas about the role of the individual and how society is governed. • What does it mean to adapt other ideas? • What does it mean to govern society? Geography • Mountains isolate people of Greece and develop different city-states. • Lack of fertile soil leads them to utilize the seas around them. • Greeks trade goods & ideas around the Med. Greek Trade • Greek pottery was one of the more important articles traded throughout the Med. Sea. • Pottery in Ancient Greece told stories about the Greeks. • Pottery also told stories about the gods and about the Olympic games. Early Civilizations Minoans – 1750 B.C. – Crete Mycenaens – 1400 B.C. – Greek Peninsula Minoans • Around 1750 B.C., the Minoans built the first Greek civilization on the island of Crete. • They traded with Egypt and Mesopotamia. • Conquered in 1450 B.C. by Mycenaeans. Mycenaeans • The Mycenaeans conquer the Minoans around 1450 B.C. • They also built fortified cities and learned from the cultures around them. • Expert sea traders. The Rise of City States • As we know, Greece is divided by mountains. • It also has tons of islands, which did not allow for a unified empire to grow. • A collection of small citystates developed instead. • The term POLIS is what these city-states were called. • The two main city-states we will talk about are Athens and Sparta. The Polis • The Polis was made up of two parts. • The hill-top acropolis, which included marble temples. • On the flatter ground below was the main city, within a wall. • This area included the marketplace, theater, other public areas, and homes. • The Agora was the area where voices were heard. City-States Early History • Between 750 B.C. and 500 B.C., the Greek City-States had several different types of government. • At first, kings ruled the city-states. What is the name of this type of government? • Over time, landowning nobles gained power, creating an aristocracy, a government ruled by the landholding elite. • The two most powerful city-states were Sparta and Athens. • Though they shared Greek culture, they developed different ways of life. Sparta “Military Strength” Militarism in Sparta • Sparta was a warrior society, and from an early age, boys trained for a lifetime in the military. • At age 7, boys left home to train in the military. • Girls were also trained to grow strong, so that healthy babies were born. • Sparta was an excellent military state. • They were ruled by a king. Limited Democracy in Athens • A wise leader named Pericles ruled Athens from 460-429 B.C. • Under Pericles, Athens had a direct democracy. • A large number of male citizens took part in the government. • Women did not participate. They were thought of as inferior. (Slaves and foreigners) • Athens was the first culture to have this much participation. • Athens was the center of Greek culture at this time. Sparta Athens Monarchy with 2 kings Limited Democracy Laws made by assembly Only male citizens in assembly Trade with other citystates. Education for boys Women inferior Common Language Military society Shared heroes Trade and travel not allowed. Olympic Games Military training for all boys Same gods and religious beliefs. Girls trained to be mothers of soldiers Women obey men. Women own property. The Persian Wars • Between 490-479 B.C., the 2 differing city-states had to unite to fight off a common enemy, the Persian Empire. • The Persians were eventually defeated and the Greeks needed to form together to defend themselves. • The Delian League was formed with Athens at the control. • With control of power and money, Athens flourished. Greece’s Golden Age Greece’s Golden Age • During the golden age of Greece, Art, Architecture, Drama, and History flourish. • Art reflects the human figure. • Much of the art is of the Greek Gods/Goddesses. • The Parthenon was built during this time. (Pericles) • “Tragedies” and “Comedies” are developed. • Amphitheatres built. • Herodotus and Thucydides recorded history. Developed Socratic Method: Learning about beliefs and ideas by asking questions. Believed government should control lives of people. Believed one strong and good leader should rule. Government put him to death. Divided society into 3 classes: workers, philosophers, and soldiers. Believed people learned through reason.