Ancient Greece - ESM School District

Report
Ancient Greece
1750 B.C. – 133 B.C.
Key Thoughts
• The Ancient Greeks adapted ideas from earlier
cultures.
• They also developed their own ideas about the
role of the individual and how society is
governed.
• What does it mean to adapt other ideas?
• What does it mean to govern society?
Geography
• Mountains isolate people
of Greece and develop
different city-states.
• Lack of fertile soil leads
them to utilize the seas
around them.
• Greeks trade goods &
ideas around the Med.
Greek Trade
• Greek pottery was one of the
more important articles traded
throughout the Med. Sea.
• Pottery in Ancient Greece told
stories about the Greeks.
• Pottery also told stories about
the gods and about the Olympic
games.
Early Civilizations
Minoans – 1750 B.C. – Crete
Mycenaens – 1400 B.C. – Greek Peninsula
Minoans
• Around 1750 B.C., the
Minoans built the first
Greek civilization on the
island of Crete.
• They traded with Egypt
and Mesopotamia.
• Conquered in 1450 B.C.
by Mycenaeans.
Mycenaeans
• The Mycenaeans
conquer the Minoans
around 1450 B.C.
• They also built fortified
cities and learned from
the cultures around
them.
• Expert sea traders.
The Rise of City States
• As we know, Greece is
divided by mountains.
• It also has tons of islands,
which did not allow for a
unified empire to grow.
• A collection of small citystates developed instead.
• The term POLIS is what
these city-states were called.
• The two main city-states we
will talk about are Athens
and Sparta.
The Polis
• The Polis was made up of
two parts.
• The hill-top acropolis, which
included marble temples.
• On the flatter ground below
was the main city, within a
wall.
• This area included the
marketplace, theater, other
public areas, and homes.
• The Agora was the area
where voices were heard.
City-States Early History
• Between 750 B.C. and 500 B.C., the Greek City-States had
several different types of government.
• At first, kings ruled the city-states. What is the name of this
type of government?
• Over time, landowning nobles gained power, creating an
aristocracy, a government ruled by the landholding elite.
• The two most powerful city-states were Sparta and Athens.
• Though they shared Greek culture, they developed different
ways of life.
Sparta “Military Strength”
Militarism in Sparta
• Sparta was a warrior society,
and from an early age, boys
trained for a lifetime in the
military.
• At age 7, boys left home to
train in the military.
• Girls were also trained to
grow strong, so that healthy
babies were born.
• Sparta was an excellent
military state.
• They were ruled by a king.
Limited Democracy in Athens
• A wise leader named Pericles
ruled Athens from 460-429 B.C.
• Under Pericles, Athens had a
direct democracy.
• A large number of male citizens
took part in the government.
• Women did not participate. They
were thought of as inferior. (Slaves
and foreigners)
• Athens was the first culture to
have this much participation.
• Athens was the center of Greek
culture at this time.
Sparta
Athens
Monarchy with 2
kings
Limited Democracy
Laws made by
assembly
Only male citizens in
assembly
Trade with other citystates.
Education for boys
Women inferior
Common
Language
Military society
Shared heroes
Trade and travel not
allowed.
Olympic
Games
Military training for
all boys
Same gods
and religious
beliefs.
Girls trained to be
mothers of soldiers
Women obey men.
Women own property.
The Persian Wars
• Between 490-479 B.C., the 2
differing city-states had to unite to
fight off a common enemy, the
Persian Empire.
• The Persians were eventually
defeated and the Greeks needed
to form together to defend
themselves.
• The Delian League was formed
with Athens at the control.
• With control of power and money,
Athens flourished.
Greece’s Golden Age
Greece’s Golden Age
• During the golden age of
Greece, Art, Architecture,
Drama, and History flourish.
• Art reflects the human figure.
• Much of the art is of the
Greek Gods/Goddesses.
• The Parthenon was built
during this time. (Pericles)
• “Tragedies” and “Comedies”
are developed.
• Amphitheatres built.
• Herodotus and Thucydides
recorded history.
Developed Socratic
Method: Learning about
beliefs and ideas by
asking questions.
Believed government should
control lives of people.
Believed one strong and
good leader should rule.
Government put him to
death.
Divided society into 3
classes: workers,
philosophers, and soldiers.
Believed people learned
through reason.

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