Flood in Laos

Report
Integrated Water Resources Management in Laos
- Some Data on Flood in Laos and Nam Ngum River
Basin 2011
Souphasay Komany
Acting Director
Nam Ngum River Basin Committee Secretariat
Department of Water Resources
Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment
Email: [email protected] and [email protected]
Water Resources Status in Lao PDR
Annual Surface Water Availability and Sectoral
Consumptive Uses
Surface Water Availability: 270 Billion CM3
Sectoral Consumptive Uses: 5.7 Billion CM3
5.7 Billion
CM3
(2%)
8%
264.3 Billion
CM3
(98%)
Remaining Surface Water Flow
10%
82%
Surface Water Uses
Industry
Agriculture
Domestic
4
History – Regional Context
– October 1957: Establishment of the Lower “Mekong
Commission”, the Secretariat had been based in Bangkok.
– …………. Mekong Committee. …...
– 1978 – 1995: Interim Mekong Committee.
– 1995: Mekong River Commission.
• Under the Agreement on the Cooperation for the Sustainable
Development of the Mekong River Basin (Mekong Agreement
1995);
• Procedures for Data and Information Exchange and Sharing;
• Procedures for Water Use Monitoring;
• Procedures for Notification, Prior Consultation and Agreement
• The Secretariat based in Phnom Phene 1998 – 2003; in
Vientiane 2004 – 2010; and Co-host Location between Lao and
Cambodia 2010 –
5
History – National Context
•
Constitution, Article 17: All organizations and citizens must protect the
environment and natural resources: land, underground, forests, fauna,
water sources and atmosphere.
•
Environmental Law 1999 specifies necessary principles, rules and
measures for managing, monitoring, restoring and protecting the
environment in order to protect public, natural resources and biodiversity,
and to ensure the sustainable socio-economic development of the nation.
6
History – National Context
• Water Law 1996 paved the way for application of IWRM
principles:
– “determines necessary Principles, rules, and measures relative to the
administration, exploitation, use and development of water and water resources
in the Lao people's Democratic Republic to preserve sustainable water and
water resources and to ensure volume and quality providing for people 's living
requirements, promoting agriculture, forestry, and industry, developing the
national souci-economy and ensuring that no damage is caused to the
environment”.
• Decree to Implement the Water Law 2001provides officially
cross-sectoral framework for coordination and functional
arrangement:
– “The decree establishes the responsibilities of different ministries, agencies and
local authorities with regard to the management, exploitation, development and
use of water and water resources.
– The Decree shall also ensure efficient development and use, conformity with the
socio-economic development planning, an increase in production, an
improvement of the living conditions of the people and sustainable use of water
resources”.
7
History – National Context
• Legal and regulatory framework and management
tools developed in a less integration and given
provisions were too general with the lack of subsidiary
legislations. On the other hand, their enforcement
were relatively limited;
–
–
Water Law is considered as framework legislation with
limited dissemination and weak enforcement;
Lake of supporting subsidiary legislation, regulations and
tools;
• Sectoral planning observably fragmented with
insufficient communication with the lack of resources
supported for implementation and fully goal
achievement;
8
History – National Context
•
Previous River Basin / Water Resources Management:
–
–
–
–
–
•
Establishment of the Water Resources Coordination
Committee (WRCC), 1999:
–
•
No formal RBO in-functioned;
No commonly institutional arrangement –
project-based arrangement;
Sector-based design;
Limit coordination on planning and management;
Functional Conflict with the existing Lao National Mekong
Committee (LNMC), since over 90% of the Lao territory is within
the MRB;
Concept of IRBM Confused with Integrated Watershed
Management Function;
9
History – National Context
• At the beginning lack of national coordination /
management agency (apex body); and later the
coordination agency was existed but facing with
insufficient authority and less recognition;
• Lake of human resources and technical capacity;
• Limited understanding on IWRM at national and local
levels;
• Fragmented, in-updated and unqualified data and
information, inconsistent data and information system;
10
Present – National Arrangement
•
LNMC – National Water Apex Body as part of its MRC institutional
Arrangement;
– Honorably chaired by Deputy Prime Minister and permanently chaired by WREA;
member by vice ministers of line agencies;
•
Former WREA (now MoNRE) – Public Administrative Body brought about
IWRM functions into official stage and provide management framework for
future IWRM application by considering IRBM as a heart;
•
DWR – Combines LNMCS and WRCCS in one and acts as LNMC
Secretariat as part of its national administrative functions;
•
Reconceptionalizing of IRBM and IWM Functions - Agreement between
WREA and MAF on River Basin Planning and Landscape Continuum
Planning, 2009;
•
Setting up the national Models of RBC: NN RBC and NTNK RBC;
11
Mandate of RBCs
• Based on the Prime Ministerial Decree, no. 293/PM, dated 15
June 2010
1. Principles:
–
IWRM through consultation and participation development
process in river basin area among all involved agencies,
including government, private sector, communities and other
involved parties;
–
Ensure equitable water resources use and sustainable
ecosystem;
–
Apply mechanism for polluter / user pay fee.
Mandate of RBCs
2. Location:
–
River Basin Committee:
•
•
•
–
Non-permanent organization;
Basin-based water resources management;
Under the supervision of the LNMC
Secretariat:
•
•
•
•
Permanent organization;
Institutionally located under and technically supported by
WREA (Now is reorganized as under DWR of MoNRE);
Has the permaent office location at a province in the basin;
Acts as an advisory body and permanent office to the RBC.
Mandate of RBCs
3. Organization and Membership
–
River Basin Committee:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
–
Chaired by one of the provincial governors in the basin and has 5 year rotation;
Vice-chaired by vice governors in the basin and the Vice Head of WREA (now is
being reorganized as MoNRE);
Key National Departments as Members;
Key Provincial Divisions in the basin as Members;
Representatives of Development Groups (Hydropower, Mining, Industry and
Agriculture> in the basin as Members:
Representatives of Communities in the basin as Members:
Prepresentatives of Multi-ethnic Groups and Mass Organizations in the basin as
Members.
Secretariat:
•
•
•
The DG of RBCS has jurisdictional position as same as DG of Department;
Composes of DDGs, Head and Deputy Heads and staff;
(Now this structure is being reorganized, which is possibly under the DWR of
MoNRE).
Public Administration
(Legislative / Permanent Bodies)
Mekong River
Commission
National Government
River Basin
Committee
Ministries /
Agencies
MoNRE
DWR /
LNMC
Secretariat
MoNRE
Depts
Prov. Level
RBC
Secretariat
Prov. Adms
Provincial
DoNREs
Sub-Basin
Committees
Dist.
Level
Dist. Adms
District
OoNREs
Relevant Depts
/ Divs
Task Forces / Working Groups /
Advisory Groups
National Level
Lao National
Mekong Committee
Sectoral Sub-committees / Forums
Sub-basin
Sub-national
Basin
International and
Sub-international
Basin
Coordination Arrangement
(Impermanent Bodies)
Prov.
Agencies
Dist.
Agencies
15
16
Nam Ngum RB Profile
Physical Features
Area
16,800 square km
(7% of national area)
Length
354 km
Water Resources
Average Flow to
Mekong River
22 billion m3 / year
(14% Mekong Flow)
Annual Water Use
0.9 billion m3
Agriculture: 99%
Urban:
0.5%
Industrial:
0.1%
Land Cover and Use
Natural Forest
47%
Shrub land / Re-growth
34%
Agriculture
8%
Grassland
7%
Water surface
3%
Urban area
0.02%
Administration
No. of provinces
5
No. of District
19
Population
502,000 persons
(9% of Lao PDR)
ISSUES:
- lack of knowledge,
experiences and inadequate
capacity;
- water use for various
purposes;
- hydropower development;
- irrigation schemes have
increasingly developed
throughout the basin;
- lack of sub-basin
management plans
- impact from water related
disaster – flood & drought.
Major Sectoral Water Resources Development in
the Nam Ngum River Basin
Major Debvelopment
Present Situation
Future Expectation
Hydropower
5 Projects (2011)
14 Projects (2020)
Irrigation
58,000 Ha (2004)
Maximum Potential:
150,000 Ha
Domestic Water Use
326,000 m3/Month
(2006)
482,500 m3/Month
(2020)
Tourism
250,000 visitors (2010)
1,600,000 visitors (2020)
Medium and Major
Mining
Over 34 Projects (2007)
Expected to be largely
increased
Medium and Major
Industries
197 plants (2008)
Expected to be largely
increased
Other water uses
Increasing
Expected to be largely
increased
18
The Nam Ngum- Mekong Linkage
Geography
IWRM instruments
Mekong
Basin
Mekong IWRM-based Basin
Development Plan
Laos
Nam Ngum
Nam Ngum
Sub-Basins
Watersheds
National Water Resources Strategy
and Action Plan
Nam Ngum IWRM Plan
Nam Ngum sub-basin plans
(as e.g. Nam Song and Nam Kho)
Integrated Watershed
Management Plans
19
NN RIVER BASIN PLANNING
DEVELOPMENT PLANS 2011-15
National
Province
District
STAKEHOLDER
CONSULTATIONS
WATER RESOURCES PLANS
National WR Strategy 2011-15
MoNRE Strategy 2011-15
NN IWRM Plan
NNRBC
SUB-BASIN COMMITTEES
(Districts, communities)
OTHER PLANS
MRC BDP & Procedures
Sector plans
Climate change adaptation plans
MDG, PRSP etc.etc.
NNRB PLAN 2011-15
ANNUAL NNRBC WORK PLANS
(NNRB Secretariat)
NN IWRM Planning Initiatives
Key Result Areas:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Building Capacity to Manage the
NNRB;
Sustainable Water Use;
Optimization Hydropower
Outcomes;
Developing the Irrigation Potential of
the Basin;
River Sub-basin Management;
Reducing Risks and Impacts from
Water Relate Disasters.
Flood Characteristics in Laos and NNRB
• Floods are by far the most damaging of all the natural disasters the strike
the Lao PDR.
• The central and southern regions are most affected by the frequent
floods.
• Flooding is a regular occurrence in the Nam Ngum River Basin and casing
economic loss, social hardship and the times loss life.
• Flooding is also important for the maintenance of riparian and aquatic
ecosystems and also contributes to improve the fertility of soils.
• Flooding on the Vientiane Plains is a serious and complex problem caused
by waters from the Nam Ngum River , the unregulated Nam Lik River and
interaction with the waters of the Mekong river.
Luangprabang Province
Xiengkhuang Province
Bolikhamxay Province
Flood in urban center
and adjacent
Historical flsah flood of
two districts
Flood along the Mekong
on the Road No.13
Vientiane Province
Saravan and Sekong
Provinces
Flash flood of Vangvieng
and Kasi Districts
Historical flash flood to
urban and adjacent
districts
Vientiane Capital
Flood in urban districts
Khammuan Province
Flood along the Mekong on road No.
13 and Xebangfai River
Champasack Province
Flood at the river mount of Sedone River
23
Flood damage and impacts in Nam Ngum
(2011)
Provinces affected
3 provinces: Xiengkhouang, Vientiane,
Vientiane Capital
Districts affected
13
Villages affected
252
People affected
People injured
People killed
Cost damaged in Nam
Ngum
8
> 14 millions USD
Flood damage and impacts in Nam Ngum
(2011) – cont.
Agriculture
Hectares of Rice paddy fields affected
3,861.10
Irrigation damaged
Livestock
Cattle
141 head lost
Poultry
6,622 head lost
Fish ponds, fishes and aquaculture
179 sites
Existing and Planned Hydropower Development Plan
32

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