The institution through which a society makes and enforces its public policies A body of people , living in a defined territory, organized politically, and with the power to make and enforce law without the consent of a higher authority Four Essential Features of a State: Population Government Territory Sovereignty Any sizable group of people who are united by common bonds of race, language, custom, tradition, and, sometimes religion. Nation-State A country in which the territory of the state, and a cultural nation of people are in the same place. All of the things that a government decides to do. Defense Taxation Education Crime Control Health Care Transportation Environment Civil Rights Working Conditions Governments Have power to make and implement public policy Legislative The power to create laws Executive The power to enforce laws Judicial The power to interpret laws, to settle disputes that arise within a society. A body of fundamental laws setting out the principles, structures, and processes of a government Four Theories on the Origin of the State Evolutionary Theory Divine Right Theory State evolved over time God made the state Force Theory Social Contract Theory Took over the state by force Unwritten contract, people give up rights for protection from the state Thomas Hobbes EVIL and must be _____________ CONTROLLED by - man is essentially _______ government John Locke - man is essentially good, and governments allow people to act together as a _______ TEAM to accomplish more ______ WORK Montesquieu – spirit of laws, idea of separation of powers Blackstone – theory of common law Rousseau – freedom, equality, and justice for all…politics and morality should be separated Six Goals of our Constitution We the people of the United States, in Order to form a more perfect Union, establish justice, insure domestic tranquility, provide for the common defense, promote the general welfare, and secure the blessings of liberty to ourselves and our posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America.