EVELINE James Joyce James Joyce James Joyce (2 February 1882 – 13 January 1941) was an Irish novelist and poet, considered to be one of the most influential writers in the modernist avant-garde of the early 20th century. Joyce is best known for Ulysses (1922), a landmark work in which stream of consciousness technique is used. Other major works are the short-story collection Dubliners (1914), and the novels A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man (1916) and Finnegans Wake (1939). Joyce was born to a middle class family in Dublin, where he excelled as a student at the Jesuit schools, then at University College Dublin. In his early twenties he emigrated permanently to continental Europe, living in Paris and Zurich. Though most of his adult life was spent abroad, Joyce's fictional universe does not extend beyond Dublin, and is populated largely by characters who closely resemble family members, enemies and friends from his time there; Ulysses in particular is set with precision in the streets and alleyways of the city. Shortly after the publication of Ulysses he elucidated this preoccupation somewhat, saying, “For myself, I always write about Dublin, because if I can get to the heart of Dublin I can get to the heart of all the cities of the world. ” Stream of consciousness In literary criticism, stream of consciousness is a narrative mode that seeks to portray an individual's point of view by tracing a continuously uninterrupted flow of thought and feelings. It’s an important device of modernist fiction, the technique was pioneered by Dorothy Richardson in Pilgrimage (1915–35) and by James Joyce in Ulysses (1922), and further developed by Virginia Woolf in Mrs Dalloway (1925) and William Faulkner in The Sound and the Fury (1928). Realism – modernism – postmodernism Parody Dubliners James Joyce’s book of short stories Dubliners is one of his most famous works. Himself an Irish man, Joyce penned stories that centered around characters in Dublin who were dealing with the issues of the time period. “My intention was to write a chapter of the moral history of my country and I chose Dublin for the scene because that city seemed to me the centre of paralysis,” Joyce writes in Selected Letters. “I tried to present it to the indifferent public under four of its aspects: childhood, adolescence, maturity and public life.” The common themes in most stories in this collection is the exaltation of the concept of freedom. Thus, leaving home on a journey to some faraway place is associated with a new life. Eveline Joyce’s short story Eveline was the advent between adolescence and maturity. Written in 1914, which preceded the women’s suffrage in Ireland by four years, the story’s protagonist, Eveline, is largely affected by the issues of the time period. The reconsiderations on woman’s role are illustrated through Eveline’s relationships with her family and boyfriend, as well the societal expectations, and her duties and obligations. Eveline’s story is much like many young women in early twentieth century in Dublin. What is this story about? The story is about a young woman who faces the difficult choice of taking a risk or remaining in safety. Eveline must choose between following her heart and impulsively following a man she barely knows or remaining with her family in a relatively uneventful, predictable and tiresome life. Harmonium n. 脚踏式风琴；小风琴 Saint Margaret Mary Alacoque 玛加利大 Edge / a quality which gives superiority over close rivals Have an edge on / (略为)胜过；(略)占优势 His cars have an edge over his rivals. Give the edge to Small-scale investors are divided, with some arguing that the law will give the edge to big corporations. Down adv. away from a more central or a more northernly place "was sent down to work at the regional office"; " worked down on the farm"; " flew down to Florida“ Foe ( 福） J.M.Coetzee [Original] ‘Or if we had mops in London, as they have in the west country,’ said Foe, ‘Friday could stand in the line with his hoe on his shoulder and be hired for a gardener...’ (129) [Translation] 福先生说：‘如果我们在伦敦有那种西方国 家人们用的拖把……’(117) 当代南非作家库切的小说《福》是在18世纪现实主义作 家笛福的《鲁宾逊漂流记》之基础上改写而成的，作品具 有浓厚的后现代色彩。 mop means “an autumn fair or gathering at which farmhands and servants were hired”. “West country” means the west countryside of London. Besides, the invariable squabble for money on Saturday nights had begun to weary her unspeakably. In addition, the family always had a quarrel about money on Saturday nights, which had made her extremely / indescribably tired. Provision/ n. (pl.) a store or supply of something (especially of food or clothing or arms) run out of provisions 粮食(供给）缺乏 lodge vi. To live in somebody’s house temporarily, free or as a paying guest e.g. Kim lodged with a local family the summer she studied in Paris. Peaked cap Cumulative sentences: An exaggerated loose structure that begins with an independent clause and then adds details in phrases and other clause. The ocean beat against the shore in long swells, roaring above the sound of the wind, threatening the tiny houses, slamming against the great rocks on the beach. The woman was dressed like a gypsy, … in a white off-the-shoulder top, loose bright skirt, a red silk scarf on her head, , and a tight belt circling her waist. … when he … pleasantly confused (She felt “pleasantly confused because on the one hand she thought he probably sang for her, who was in love with him, a sailor. On the other hand she couldn’t explain why the man had to sing about a different couple to indicate their love. Beside the song is only about the lass who loves a sailor. Does the sailor love the girl? ) Patagonia fall on one’s feet: to get into a good situation because one is lucky, especially after being in a difficult situation e. g. Don’t worry about Nina, she always falls on her feet. The white … grew indistinct. P: The white part of two letters on her legs became unclear as it was getting dark. (The textual clue suggests she had written letters to Harry and her father because she was going to leave them without notifying them. But the word “indistinct” may suggest her indecisiveness in leaving.) lay sb. up: to put somebody out of action through illness or injury e.g. He was laid up with his familiar fever. inhale vt. to breathe in (air, smoke, gas, etc.) anti: exhale strut: to walk with a stiff, erect, and apparently arrogant or conceited gait e.g. Peacocks strut through the grounds. --Damned Italians … over here! (On the night Eveline’s mother died, her father became very upset with the melancholy music. It shows that her father suffered a lot at that time.) lay a spell (~on, over): to do a piece of magic to change someone spell: a form of words used as a magical charm or incantation under someone’s spell: so devoted to someone e.g. Many men have fell under the spell of her charm. As she … final craziness. P: Deep in thought, she felt intensely the magic influence of her mother’s wretched life on her soul. All her life her mother had been making routine sacrifices for the family but ended up going mad. Why does Eveline thought of her mother’s last words “Derevaun Seraun! Derevaun Seraun!” Eveline could choose to pursue a new life of happiness promised by Frank. Yet she is afraid of the “spell” that seems to have doomed her escape. She is afraid that her pursuit of pleasure would eventually end in pain due to her failure to fulfill her duties for the family. She stood … of terror. P: She suddenly felt fearful (at the thought of her mother and her words) and stood up. illumine vt. to light up, illuminate e.g. Sparks from candles illumine the children’s faces. What’s Eveline’s motivation to leave home? Is it her love for Frank? Is she confident about Frank’s love? Eveline’s motivation is not love for Frank; Eveline’s main concern is her own freedom. At this point, Frank’s name becomes somewhat significant; etymologically, the name Francis means “free man,” and Eveline’s interest in Frank revolves around his ability to provide an escape from her tiresome routine life. Eveline liked the feeling of being admired but she is not very sure about her love toward Frank. She, on the other hand, obviously love the kind of freedom he represents. porthole n. a small window on the ourside of a ship or aircraft maze n. any confusing tangle or muddle, e. g., of regulations or procedures, that is difficult to negotiate e.g. a maze of thoughts a long mournful whistle (It was she who felt the whistle “mournful”, in a sharp contrast to a promising passage to her new and happier life. ) nausea n. a feeling of sickness with an inclination to vomit (In the text, it means a sick feeling in her.) clang vi. make a loud resonant metallic sound or series of sounds n. e.g. The steel door slammed shut with a clang. He was … drown her. (Now the seas are symbolic of all the anxiety in her heart, and it seemed the man wanted to lead her into them. ) 人间所有的惊涛骇浪在她心头激荡。 What kind of artful use of language grabs your heart in this section ? By directly depicting Eveline’s feelings with short sentences in very quick rhythms, this section imposes a great pressure on the readers, passing on the suffocating feelings of Eveline and her state of being at a loss. --Eveline, Evvy! Eveline, or Eve-line, is a descendant of Eve, the first biblical woman in the world Not coincidentally, Eveline sounds like “evil-in”. In the Garden of Eden, Adam and Eve were banished by God because they had been tempted to eat the fruit from the Tree of Knowledge. Thus the “original sin” was committed. Just like Eve, Eveline was destined to bear some evil in her, and like Eve, she simply couldn’t control her own fate. Eveline is close in pronunciation to “evening”, which corresponds with the time setting in the beginning of the story. As a time near the end of the day, evening indicates the declining old world and a farewell to the past. It is not a hopeful moment, which reflects the sad dilemma Eveline is faced with. The lack of energy in the evening also reflects the melancholy passiveness of the protagonist. Her eyes … or recognition. What does the ending imply? There was no love in her eyes. She was not going to say goodbye to him, nor did she seem to know him. In the end, she was just like a stranger to him. This ending indicates that they belonged to different worlds. He was sailing towards a bright and happy new world, where she did not belong. Instead, she was left in the hopeless old world, stuck in tradition and controlled by religion, incapable of controlling her own fate. In your view, what force pulls Eveline back from the station? 1.Eveline’s love as well as duties for her family might seem to be the most apparent reason that pulls her back. 2.Her uncertainty about her life with Frank might also count. 3. The passiveness in her very character finally prevents her from leaving home. Instead of making her own decision, she wants God to take control 4. And the past life of Eveline, one deeply drowned in bitterness and pains, has already paralyzed her and disabled her from risking the unknown. What are the prime devices Joyce employs to represent the character’s stream of consciousness? The author places Eveline at the window sitting and thinking for the most part of the story, tracing a continuously uninterrupted flow of thoughts and feelings through her mind, which presents her sense perceptions mingled with her conscious and half-conscious thoughts and memories, experiences, feelings and random associations.