Slide 1

Report
Levels of biological organisation
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Cell
Tissue
Organ
Organ system
Organism
Population
Community
Ecosystem
Biosphere
• Karl Linnaeus collected organisms and
separated them according to what looked alike.
• He invented the two word system of naming
things – genus (generic name) and species
(specific name).
• RULES
- Genus always has a capital letter: Homo: and
species does not: sapiens.
- Written in italics or underlined
- Full name the first time written then
abbreviated
e.g H. sapiens
- If the species name is unknown it is sp or spp
e.g. Homo sp.
• K ingdom
Animalia
Animalia
• P hylum
Chordata
Arthropoda
• C lass
Mammalia
Crustacea
• O rder
Primates
Decapoda
• F amily
Hominidae
Palinuridae
• G enus
Homo
Jasus
• S pecies
sapiens
edwardsii
In modern system are 5 kingdoms:
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Monera
Protista
Fungi
Plantae
Animalia
Monera
• Bacteria and cyanobacteria (blue/green
algae).
• Prokaryotes i.e. no nuclear membrane
around the nucleus.
Protista
• Single-organisms (Paramecium, Amoeba,
Euglena) and algae.
Fungi
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Moulds, yeast and mushrooms
Have no photosynthetic organs
Get food from other organisms
Food stored as glycogen not starch.
Plantae
• Two main phyla:
- Bryophyta (mosses and liverworts)
- Traceophyta (ferns, conifers, flowering
plants).
• Autotrophs (self feeding)
Animalia
• Heterotrophs (cannot make own food).
• Around 10 phyla
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Porifera
Coelenterata/Cnidaria
Platyhelminths
Annelida
Mollusca
Arthropoda
Echinodermata
Chordata (having a backbone / are vertebrates)
 Mammalia
 Pices
(Fish)
 Aves (Birds)
 Reptilia
 Amphibia
Mammals
Characteristics:
 Have
teeth
 Have hair
 Are warm blooded
 Have a single jaw bone
 Have inner ear bones
 Produce milk for their young
Mammals
 They
have larger brains and
seem to be the most capable learners
 All mammalian mothers nourish
their babies with milk
Fish
Characteristics:
 Are
cold-blooded
 Live in water
 Usually have paired fins, gills, and
scales
Fish
 Most
fish lay large numbers of
eggs, but some give live birth.
 Most
fish breathe by drawing
water over four or five pairs of
gills.
Amphibians
Characteristics:
 Are
cold-blooded
 Lay their eggs in water
 Lack any skin coverings such as
fur, scales or feathers
Amphibians
 Young
amphibians tend to resemble small
fish.
 Amphibian means "two lives," a reference
to the change they go through as they
move from egg to tadpole to frog.
 Even as adults, most frogs and other
amphibians must stay close to water.
Birds
Characteristics:
 Warm-blooded
 Have
feathers
 Lay eggs
 Have bodies specially adapted for
flight
 Have a beak rather than teeth
Birds
 Their
nearly hollow bones
provide lightweight strength.
 Birds now live almost
everywhere on Earth.
Reptiles
Characteristics:
 Cold-blooded
 Have scales
 Lay leathery eggs on land
Reptiles
 Although
reptiles breathe through
lungs, some reptiles can also
absorb oxygen in water through
their mouth.

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