Levels of biological organisation • • • • • • • • • Cell Tissue Organ Organ system Organism Population Community Ecosystem Biosphere • Karl Linnaeus collected organisms and separated them according to what looked alike. • He invented the two word system of naming things – genus (generic name) and species (specific name). • RULES - Genus always has a capital letter: Homo: and species does not: sapiens. - Written in italics or underlined - Full name the first time written then abbreviated e.g H. sapiens - If the species name is unknown it is sp or spp e.g. Homo sp. • K ingdom Animalia Animalia • P hylum Chordata Arthropoda • C lass Mammalia Crustacea • O rder Primates Decapoda • F amily Hominidae Palinuridae • G enus Homo Jasus • S pecies sapiens edwardsii In modern system are 5 kingdoms: • • • • • Monera Protista Fungi Plantae Animalia Monera • Bacteria and cyanobacteria (blue/green algae). • Prokaryotes i.e. no nuclear membrane around the nucleus. Protista • Single-organisms (Paramecium, Amoeba, Euglena) and algae. Fungi • • • • Moulds, yeast and mushrooms Have no photosynthetic organs Get food from other organisms Food stored as glycogen not starch. Plantae • Two main phyla: - Bryophyta (mosses and liverworts) - Traceophyta (ferns, conifers, flowering plants). • Autotrophs (self feeding) Animalia • Heterotrophs (cannot make own food). • Around 10 phyla – – – – – – – – Porifera Coelenterata/Cnidaria Platyhelminths Annelida Mollusca Arthropoda Echinodermata Chordata (having a backbone / are vertebrates) Mammalia Pices (Fish) Aves (Birds) Reptilia Amphibia Mammals Characteristics: Have teeth Have hair Are warm blooded Have a single jaw bone Have inner ear bones Produce milk for their young Mammals They have larger brains and seem to be the most capable learners All mammalian mothers nourish their babies with milk Fish Characteristics: Are cold-blooded Live in water Usually have paired fins, gills, and scales Fish Most fish lay large numbers of eggs, but some give live birth. Most fish breathe by drawing water over four or five pairs of gills. Amphibians Characteristics: Are cold-blooded Lay their eggs in water Lack any skin coverings such as fur, scales or feathers Amphibians Young amphibians tend to resemble small fish. Amphibian means "two lives," a reference to the change they go through as they move from egg to tadpole to frog. Even as adults, most frogs and other amphibians must stay close to water. Birds Characteristics: Warm-blooded Have feathers Lay eggs Have bodies specially adapted for flight Have a beak rather than teeth Birds Their nearly hollow bones provide lightweight strength. Birds now live almost everywhere on Earth. Reptiles Characteristics: Cold-blooded Have scales Lay leathery eggs on land Reptiles Although reptiles breathe through lungs, some reptiles can also absorb oxygen in water through their mouth.