AN OVERVIEW OF ETHICS

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AN OVERVIEW OF ETHICS
• What Is Ethics ?
• Ethics And Morality
• The Difference Between
Ethics And Morality
• The Formation Of Morality
• Ethics Is Effectiveness Of
Speech On Morality
• Ethics And Present-Day
• Freedom of expression was proclaimed with
the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.
Many countries adopted this right.
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Freedom Of Expression On The
Internet
•İnternet reaches everyone so people can reach
informations easily. You can watch the lessons of
universities on the other hand , you can see video
which insults some people or religions.
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Nakoula Basseley Nakoula…
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The second example is ,
•Amanda Bonnen shared this on Twitter :
•‘ Who said a moldy apartment was bad for your
health to stay. Horizon argues that it was good ’
•Horizon Reality Grup liligated to Amanda
because of reduction of reputation in the
business world.
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• Julian Assange is founder of Wikileaks. He
published
• 251.287 confidential documents. These
documents was included the correspondences
between ambassadors of USA.
• Because of this access to the site was tried to
block , donations were denied
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Computer and Internet
Crime
TYPES OF ATTACKS
• Most frequent attack is on a networked computer
from an outside source
• Types of attacks
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Virus
Worm
Trojan horse
Denial of service
VIRUSES
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Pieces of programming code
Usually disguised as something else
Cause unexpected and usually undesirable events
Often attached to files
Deliver a “payload”
• Does not spread itself from computer to computer
– Must be passed on to other users through
• Infected e-mail document attachments
• Programs on diskettes
• Shared files
• Macro viruses
– Most common and easily created viruses
– Created in an application macro language
– Infect documents and templates
WORMS
• Harmful programs
– Reside in active memory of a computer
• Duplicate themselves
– Can propagate without human intervention
• Negative impact of virus or worm attack
– Lost data and programs
– Lost productivity
– Effort for IT workers
TROJEN HORSES
• Program that a hacker secretly installs
• Users are tricked into installing it
• Logic bomb
– Executes under specific conditions
HACKERS and CRACKERS
• Hackers
– Test limitations of systems out of intellectual
curiosity
• Crackers
– Cracking is a form of hacking
– Clearly criminal activity
PREVENTION
• Antivirus software
– Continually updated with the latest virus detection
information
• Called definitions
• Departing employees
– Promptly delete computer accounts, login IDs, and
passwords
• Carefully define employee roles
• Create roles and user accounts
DETECTION
• Detection systems
– Catch intruders in the act
• Intrusion detection system
– Monitors system and network resources and
activities
– Notifies the proper authority when it identifies
• Possible intrusions from outside the organization
• Misuse from within the organization
– Knowledge-based approach
– Behavior-based approach
• Intrusion prevention systems (IPSs)
– Prevent attacks by blocking
• Viruses
• Malformed packets
• Other threats
– Sits directly behind the firewall
RESPONSE
• Response plan
– Develop well in advance of any incident
– Approved by
• Legal department
• Senior management
• Primary goals
– Regain control
– Limit damage
RESPONSE
• Incident notification defines
– Who to notify
– Who not to notify
• Security experts recommend against releasing
specific information about a security compromise
in public forums
• Document all details of a security incident
– All system events
– Specific actions taken
– All external conversations
SUMMARY
• Most incidents involve a:
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Virus
Worm
Trojan horse
Denial-of-service
• Perpetrators include:
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Hackers
Crackers
Industrial spies
Cybercriminals
Cyberterrorists
• Key elements of a multilayer process for managing
security vulnerabilities include:
– Assessment
– User education
– Response plan
The Right of Privacy
• What is the right of privacy?
• The right of individuals to control the
collection and use of information about
themselves.
Or;
• The right to be left alone—the most
comprehensive of rights, and the right most
valued by a free people
The legal concept of the right to privacy
has four aspects:
• Protection from unreasonable intrusion upon one’s
isolation
• Protection from appropriation of one’s name or
likeness
• Protection from unreasonable publicity given to
one’s private life
• Protection from publicity that unreasonably places
one in a false light before the public
A number of laws have been enacted over the past 40
years that affect a person’s privacy:
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No single, overarching national data privacy policy
Communications Act of 1934
Freedom of Information Act (FOIA)
Fair Credit Reporting Act of 1970
Privacy Act of 1974
Children’s Online Protection Act (COPA)
European Community Directive 95/46/EC of 1998
Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act
• Laws authorize electronic surveillance by the
government.
• Data encryption (Science of encoding
messages)
– Public key encryption system
– Private key encryption system
Identity theft
• Theft of key pieces of personal information to gain
access to a person’s financial accounts
• Information includes:
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Name
Address
Date of birth
Social Security number
Passport number
Driver’s license number
Mother’s maiden name
• Consumer behavior data is collected both
online and offline
• Employers record and review employee
communications and activities on the job
• Advances in information technology
– Surveillance cameras
– Facial recognition software
– GPS systems
• What is The Social Media?
• What are the effects of social
media in our lives?
• Social Media Ethics
What is the Software Development
• Software development is the process of
developing software through successive phases
in an orderly way.
• The complexity of modern systems and
computer products long ago made the need
clear for some kind of orderly development
process.
Ethics in Information
Technology
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Typical phases of software development:
1) Identification of required software
2) Analysis of the software requirements
3) Detailed specification of the software
requirements
4) Software design
5) Programming
6) Testing
in Information
7) Maintenance EthicsTechnology
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A software development process makes
everything easier and reduces the amount of
problems encountered. Some companies and
government agencies require a software
development process or that you adhere to the
ISO 12207.
ISO 12207 Software life cycle processes : is an international
standard for software lifecycle processes. It aims to be the
standard that defines all the tasks required for developing
and maintaining software.
Ethics in Information
Technology
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Systems development life cycle
models include:
• · The waterfall model: This is the classic SDLC
model, with a linear and sequential method
that has goals for each developmentphase.
The waterfall model simplifies task scheduling,
because there areno iterative or overlapping
steps. One drawback of the waterfall is thatit
does not allow for much revision.
• · Rapid application development (RAD): This
modelis based on the concept that better
products can be developed more quicklyby:
using workshops or focus groups to gather
system requirements; prototyping and
reiterative testing of designs; rigid adherence
to schedule; and less formality of team
communications such as reviews.
• · Joint application development (JAD): This
modelinvolves the client or end user in the
design and development of an
application,through a series of collaborative
workshops called JAD sessions.
• · The prototyping model: In this model, a
prototype (an early approximation of a final
system or product) is built, tested,and then
reworked as necessary until an acceptable
prototype is finallyachieved from which the
complete system or product can now be
developed.
• · The spiral model: This model of
development combines the features of the
prototyping model and the waterfall model.
The spiral model is favored for large,
expensive, and complicated projects.

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