Sensory in Food

Report
Sensory in Food :
A Virtual Molecular Meal
presented to the
SAAFoST Sensory Forum Winter Warmer
by Neil Wiltshire
Senior Flavourist
FlavourCraft - part of Kerry Ingredients & Flavours
11 July 2012
Starter 1 : Mushrooms
HO
O
linoleic acid
enzyme
OH
1-octen-3-ol / "mushroom alcohol"
monosodium glutamate / MSG
= umami / savoury taste
UMAMI
indicates the presence of PROTEIN
disodium guanylate / GMP
= umami / savoury taste
Starter 2 : Peri-peri (chicken livers)
- chillies, and other hot stuff...
HO
H
N
O
O
capsaicin = pungent / hot!
piperine
O
O
O
N
trigeminal sense
= sensory confusion!!
HO
gingerol
O
O
HO
OH
shogaol
O
O
Starter 3 : Garlic
O
HS
O
OH
S
NH2
O
alliin
OH
NH2
cysteine (amino acid)
alliinase
(enzyme)
O
O
H2O
S
2-propenesulfenic acid
OH
OH
O
OH
NH2
NH3
ammonia &
pyruvic acid
X2
S S
S
S
O
diallyl disulfide
allicin = antibacterial & antifungal
Main Course : Meat & Fish
4-methyloctanoic acid
OH
O
O
trimethylamine
oxide
N
N
trimethylamine
> odour = fishy
lipids / fats > lipolysis > lipid oxidation
=> fatty acids, aldehydes, esters, lactones
- chicken = 2,4-alkadienals
- beef = lactones & alkanals
- lamb / mutton = 4-methyloctanoic acid
& 4-methylnonanoic acid
- pork = 2-alkenals
proteins / amino acids + sugars
(+ lipids + thiamine / vitamin B1) > Maillard reaction
=> very complex group of reactions
> aldehydes, sulfur compounds, pyrazines, pyridines,
thiazoles, thiazines, thiophenes, furans, etc., etc.
> chicken & pork : cysteine NB.
> beef : thiamine NB.
O
O
S
S
bis-(2-methyl-3-furyl) disulfide
> odour = cooked meat / beefy
- OT ~ 0.02 ppt => 1 drop / 500 Olympic pools
odour of both = fatty, goaty
4-methylnonanoic acid
OH
O
Main Course : Curry / Spices
OH
O
O
clove - eugenol
OH
cardamom - terpinyl acetate
thyme - thymol
cinnamon - cinnamaldehyde
O
O
O
OH
basil - eugenol
& estragole
O
coriander - linalool
ginger - zingiberene
O
OH
NH2
OH
HO
4-hydroxy-isoleucine (amino acid)
fenugreek / methie
OH
NH2
OH
O
O
O
3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethyl-2(5H)-furanone / Sotolone
> odour = burnt sugar / curry
star-anise
- anethole
Dessert : Chocolate Mousse
- sweet => sugar => carbohydrates / energy
- creamy, smooth, rich mouthfeel
=> source of fats = energy + building blocks
- bitter => at high level = possible toxin
BUT at low level = possible medicine... &/ psychoactive drug!
O
OH
NH2
theobromine = Greek for "food of the gods"
- present in the cacao seeds as a defense
- bitter
- stimulant and various therapeutic effects
- at high levels, it becomes toxic
- toxic to cats and dogs at even low levels
phenylalanine
- amino acid
NH2
phenylethylamine
- produced in the brain
- especially associated with
happiness and "falling in love"...
ie. Lots of reasons to crave chocolate!!
Dessert : Chocolate Mousse
NH3
NH2
ammonia
leucine - amino acid
H
CO2
carbon dioxide
NH2
OH
O
O
O
* all reactions "catalyzed" by sugars
and requiring heat (pH also important)
O
OH
phenylalanine - amino acid
NH2
O
O
NH2
O
H
NH3
oxygen
O
O
ammonia
CO2
carbon dioxide
5-methyl-2-phenyl-2-hexenal / cocoa aldehyde
> char. cocoa odour
Digesting the "Meal"...
- flavours from compounds already in foods (eg. spices)
- flavours derived from precursors in foods
- formed automatically in the food (eg. garlic)
- formed by human or other outside influence on the food
(eg. cooking)
=> result : lots of delicious flavours & foods to choose from!!
Thank you very much for your attention,
enjoy the meal
and have a wonderful evening...

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