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Activity 4
What Do Cells Do?!
SEPUP: Cell Biology
CHALLENGE:
What are the functions of the structures in
cells?
Background Information
By understanding how the parts of a cell function
normally, doctors and scientists can better
understand what goes wrong in the cell when an
infectious disease occurs and what causes the
disease to progress.
Although there are different kinds of cells, there are
also key similarities between them.
What are some structures that all cells have in
common?
Cell membrane
Genetic material…DNA
Proteins
Vocabulary Alert!
Organelles- membrane bound structures that carry
out specific functions within the cell
Part A: Computer Simulation
Visit website http://sepuplhs.org/sgi
Go to “What do cells do?” and click on
STUDENTS and Activity Links
Scroll down to Cell Biology: World Health & find
“Activity 4-What do cells do?”
As you go through the simulation…
In your notebook, draw a picture of an animal cell &
a plant cell. Be sure to label everything in your
picture. GET A STAMP!
Draw the functions table in your NB & fill out.
GET A STAMP!
Draw your complete/correct Venn Diagram in your
NB. GET A STAMP!
Part B: Comparing Cells
Read “Bacterial Cell Structure” on pg. 181
As you read, add to the Bacteria column in your
chart. GET A STAMP!
In your NB, answer the following questions:
1. List the functions of bacterial cells that
antibiotics interfere with.
2. Explain WHY antibiotics are an effective
medication to fight bacterial infections.
 Answer AQs 1-3 in your NB. GET A STAMP!
Psssst! Go back to your 4 Venn diagram from
Activity 3. Use your understanding from the
simulation and the reading to make changes &
additions (IN COLOR). GET A STAMP!
Antibiotics work by disrupting the
structure or function of a microbe’s cell
parts. For example…
Four Classes of Antibiotics
Antibiotic Class
Mode of Action in Bacterial Cells
β-lactams
Interfere with cell wall structure
Tetracyclines
Interfere with protein synthesis
Quinolones
Interfere with the copying of bacterial DNA
Sulphonamides
Interfere with the production of an enzyme needed to
copy the bacterial DNA
Bacteria & Antibiotics
Functions of bacterial cells that antibiotics interfere
with:
Cell wall structure, protein synthesis (ribosome
function), copying of DNA (chromosome function),
& production of enzymes.
Why are antibiotics an effective medication to fight
bacterial infections?
They interfere with the organelle parts that do
specific functions within the bacteria cell such as:
prevent DNA reproduction, protein synthesis, &
production of enzymes.
Function
Animal
Plant
Synthesis & modification
of molecules needed by
cells
Nucleus; cytoplasm;
endoplasmic reticulum
(ER); free ribosomes;
Golgi apparatus
Same as animal cell
Storage of substances
Small vacuoles; nucleus
Large vacuole; nucleus
Transport of materials
within, into, & out of cells
Cell membrane,
cytoskeleton; vesicle
Same as animal cell
Support for cells
Cell membrane;
cytoskeleton
Cell membrane,
cytoskeleton; cell wall
Convert energy for cells
Mitochondria
Mitochondria, chloroplast
Break down (digest) cell
wastes or microbes
Lysosome
Large vacuole
Function
Bacteria
Synthesis & modification of molecules
needed by cells
Ribosomes; chromosomes
Storage of substances
cytoplasm
Transport of materials within, into, &
out of cells
Cell membrane; cytoskeleton
Support for cells
Cell membrane; cytoskeleton; cell wall
Convert energy for cells
Cell membrane
Break down (digest) cell wastes or
microbes
cytoplasm
Animal Cell
Plant Cell
Analysis Questions
1. Label each of the following cell types as
eukaryotic or prokaryotic:
Animal
Eukaryotic cell
Plant
Eukaryotic cell
Bacteria
Prokaryotic cell
Analysis Questions Continued
2. A. Describe the structures an animal cell
must have for it to produce a protein.
DNA (within a nucleus or not), ribosomes
B. Explain how these structures work
together to produce a protein.
DNA contains the instructions for how to make
the protein.
The ribosomes make the protein. They can be
free floating in the cytoplasm or attached to the
ER.
More Important Vocabulary
Bacteria
Cell membrane
Cell wall
Cilium, cilia
Cytoplasm
Cytoskeleton
Endoplasmic reticulum
(ER)
Eukaryotic cell
Flagellum, flagella
Golgi apparatus
Lysosome
Nucleus
Organelle
Prokaryotic cell
Ribosome
Vacuole
vesicle

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