First Nation Consultation and the Aboriginal Reconciliation Process in New Brunswick Aboriginal Affairs Secretariat March 26, 2014 Historical Context (400 Years) Aboriginal and Treaty Rights in New Brunswick Jacques Cartier: New France in New Brunswick 1534 European / Aboriginal Point of Contact in Quebec 1535 Samuel de Champlain 1604 • St. Croix Island settlement • 1604: New Brunswick becomes part of the French colony of Acadia. 1700’s: A century of war • 1713: Treaty of Utrecht – Flips Nova Scotia (Acadia) to the British. • (New Brunswick), PEI, Cape Breton stay with the French. • British need to secure Nova Scotia. • Need France’s Aboriginal Allies to flip. Britain & Aboriginal peoples in the Maritimes signed the Peace and Friendship Treaties: No surrender of land - First Nations claim rights (i.e. hunting, fishing, gathering, trapping, ceremonial) & title to their ancestral lands (i.e., traditional territory). Peace & Friendship Treaties 1725-1779 Orange – Peace & Friendship 1725-1779 Mauve – Upper Canada Land Surrender 1784-1862 Yellow – Robinson1850 Blue – Douglas 1850-54 Green – Numbered 1871-1921 (11) Red – Williams 1923 1763 Treaty of Paris, Royal Proclamation • British conquer New France. • Added in the 1982 Charter of Rights – affirms aboriginal rights, – provides framework to negotiate Recognition of Aboriginal and Treaty Rights Constitution Act, 1982 • Section 35 recognizes Aboriginal and treaty rights. • Aboriginal rights: practices, traditions & customs practiced prior to European contact: hunting, trapping, fishing, gathering, ceremonial. • Rights defined by Supreme Court decisions based on the need for reconciliation and the honour of the Crown:Haida Nation and Taku River Tlingit v. B.C. (2004), Mikisew Cree v. Canada (2005), Rio Tinto v. Carrier Sekani (2010),Beckman v. Little Salmon/Carmacks (2010) New Brunswick Rights • 1980’s & 90’s: Court decisions defined aboriginal logging and fishing rights • Led to PNB forestry 5% of AAC , DFO fisheries agreements New Brunswick / First Nation Fiscal Arrangements • 14 / 15 First Nations participation: – Tax / Revenue Sharing Agreements – Gaming Agreements • 2007: Bilateral Agreement • 2008: Enhanced Education Agreements with Federal participation: NB leads the nation • Economic Development initiatives: – Madawaska Grey Rock power centre – Esgenoopetij fish plant Comprehensive Claims Comprehensive Claim Process NB • 1996: UNBI, MAWIW, NBAPC – file comprehensive land claim for all lands in NB. • 2000: Accepted for negotiation by federal gov. • 2003: 1st Tripartite (Fed, PNB, FNs: UNBI, MAWIW) meeting Moncton. • December 2008: Assembly is incorporated. Comprehensive Claim Process NB • 2011: Signed Umbrella Agreement : Fed. Prov, FNs with Assembly as representative • Framework Agreement: ready to support treaty implementation process – 25 years+ Duty to Consult: NB Policy Released Dec 2011 When Does a Duty to Consult Arise? • When the Crown has knowledge, real or constructive, of the potential existence of the Aboriginal right or title and contemplates conduct that might adversely affect it. (SCC Haida, para. 35) Duty to Consult: Legal Aspects Crown vs. In Practice First Nations Low threshold – early engagement Information overload: Many project requests Restricted to one project not past grievances Cumulative effects: (Project 1, 2, 3, 4…..) Duty to Consult: Legal Aspects vs. In First Nations Must identify traditional uses that may be impacted: hunting Practice Practice of Rights restricted Since 1876 – may not know traditional use at project site Consultation Challenges • Need research on Aboriginal and treaty rights, culture and heritage • Need effective representative for collectively held Aboriginal rights. Archeology - Sites 1996: TCH Construction Archaeological Site (3000 Years) First Nations protest, archaeological research resulted in moving location of four-lane bridge Maliseet Advisory Committee on Archaeology (MACA) established 21 Metepenagiag Heritage Park 1972 to 1984 – Archaeological research uncovers Metepenagiag’s 3000 years of history 2007 – Metepenagiag Heritage Park and Interpretation Center opens 22 Florenceville-Bristol: 9,000 years Archaeological excavation at First Nation site undertaken in partnership with; • University of New Brunswick • Town of Florenceville-Bristol • MACA • Maliseet Nation Conservation Council Continuously occupied site Long-term site management plan to conserve and interpret the site 23 Florenceville-Bristol: Artifacts 24 Insignia Spoon: 1600 – 1620 Gentry Florenceville-Bristol site 25 Florenceville-Bristol First Nation participation in archeological test pitting/excavation 26 Pennfield Project: Rte 1 Construction Oldest habitation sites in New Brunswick, 12,000 to 13,000 years old 27 Pennfield Project Site 28 29 Re-defined Shoreline 30 Sisson Brook Mine Project Site 6500-7500 years old Same time period as Stonehenge THANK YOU!!