Susi Derrah Aboriginal Affairs

Report
First Nation Consultation and the
Aboriginal Reconciliation Process in
New Brunswick
Aboriginal Affairs Secretariat
March 26, 2014
Historical Context (400 Years)
Aboriginal and Treaty Rights
in New Brunswick
Jacques Cartier: New France
in New Brunswick
1534
European / Aboriginal Point of Contact
in Quebec
1535
Samuel de Champlain 1604
• St. Croix Island settlement
• 1604: New Brunswick becomes part of
the French colony of Acadia.
1700’s: A century of war
• 1713: Treaty of Utrecht – Flips Nova
Scotia (Acadia) to the British.
• (New Brunswick), PEI, Cape Breton stay
with the French.
• British need to secure Nova Scotia.
• Need France’s Aboriginal Allies to flip.
Britain & Aboriginal peoples in the
Maritimes signed the Peace and
Friendship Treaties:
No surrender of land - First Nations
claim rights (i.e. hunting, fishing,
gathering, trapping, ceremonial) &
title to their ancestral lands (i.e.,
traditional territory).
Peace & Friendship
Treaties 1725-1779
Orange – Peace & Friendship 1725-1779
Mauve – Upper Canada Land Surrender
1784-1862
Yellow – Robinson1850
Blue – Douglas 1850-54
Green – Numbered 1871-1921 (11)
Red – Williams 1923
1763 Treaty of Paris, Royal Proclamation
• British conquer New
France.
• Added in the 1982 Charter
of Rights
– affirms aboriginal rights,
– provides framework to
negotiate
Recognition of Aboriginal and
Treaty Rights
Constitution Act, 1982
• Section 35 recognizes Aboriginal and treaty rights.
• Aboriginal rights: practices, traditions & customs
practiced prior to European contact: hunting, trapping,
fishing, gathering, ceremonial.
• Rights defined by Supreme Court decisions based on
the need for reconciliation and the honour of the
Crown:Haida Nation and Taku River Tlingit v. B.C. (2004), Mikisew
Cree v. Canada (2005), Rio Tinto v. Carrier Sekani (2010),Beckman v.
Little Salmon/Carmacks (2010)
New Brunswick Rights
• 1980’s & 90’s: Court decisions defined aboriginal
logging and fishing rights
• Led to PNB forestry 5% of AAC , DFO fisheries
agreements
New Brunswick / First Nation Fiscal
Arrangements
• 14 / 15 First Nations participation:
– Tax / Revenue Sharing Agreements
– Gaming Agreements
• 2007: Bilateral Agreement
• 2008: Enhanced Education Agreements with
Federal participation: NB leads the nation
• Economic Development initiatives:
– Madawaska Grey Rock power centre
– Esgenoopetij fish plant
Comprehensive Claims
Comprehensive Claim Process NB
• 1996: UNBI, MAWIW, NBAPC – file
comprehensive land claim for all lands in NB.
• 2000: Accepted for negotiation by federal gov.
• 2003: 1st Tripartite (Fed, PNB, FNs: UNBI,
MAWIW) meeting Moncton.
• December 2008: Assembly is incorporated.
Comprehensive Claim Process NB
• 2011: Signed Umbrella Agreement : Fed. Prov,
FNs with Assembly as representative
• Framework Agreement: ready to support treaty
implementation process – 25 years+
Duty to Consult: NB Policy
Released Dec 2011
When Does a Duty to Consult Arise?
• When the Crown has knowledge, real or
constructive, of the potential existence of the
Aboriginal right or title and contemplates conduct
that might adversely affect it. (SCC Haida, para.
35)
Duty to Consult:
Legal Aspects
Crown
vs.
In Practice
First Nations
Low threshold – early
engagement
Information overload:
Many project requests
Restricted to one project
not past grievances
Cumulative effects:
(Project 1, 2, 3, 4…..)
Duty to Consult:
Legal Aspects
vs.
In
First Nations
Must identify traditional uses
that may be impacted:
hunting
Practice
Practice of Rights restricted
Since 1876 –
may not know traditional use
at project site
Consultation Challenges
• Need research on Aboriginal and treaty rights,
culture and heritage
• Need effective representative for collectively
held Aboriginal rights.
Archeology - Sites
1996: TCH Construction Archaeological Site
(3000 Years)
First Nations protest,
archaeological research
resulted in moving location of
four-lane bridge
Maliseet Advisory Committee on
Archaeology (MACA)
established
21
Metepenagiag Heritage Park
1972 to 1984 – Archaeological
research uncovers Metepenagiag’s
3000 years of history
2007 – Metepenagiag Heritage
Park and Interpretation Center
opens
22
Florenceville-Bristol: 9,000 years
Archaeological excavation at First
Nation site undertaken in partnership
with;
• University of New Brunswick
• Town of Florenceville-Bristol
• MACA
• Maliseet Nation Conservation
Council
Continuously occupied site
Long-term site management plan to
conserve and interpret the site
23
Florenceville-Bristol: Artifacts
24
Insignia Spoon: 1600 – 1620 Gentry
Florenceville-Bristol site
25
Florenceville-Bristol First Nation participation in
archeological test pitting/excavation
26
Pennfield Project: Rte 1 Construction
Oldest habitation sites in New Brunswick, 12,000 to 13,000 years old
27
Pennfield Project Site
28
29
Re-defined
Shoreline
30
Sisson Brook Mine Project Site
6500-7500 years old
Same time period as
Stonehenge
THANK YOU!!

similar documents