File - Winnipeg Ground School

O/Cdt. Darcel
“I picked the wrong day to stop teaching Air Law”
 Clearances and Instructions
 Definitions and Flight Rules
 Special VFR
 Weather Minima
 Flight Plans & Itineraries
 Cruising Altitudes
Clearances & Instructions
 A controller may issue a clearance or instruction to a/c
within the airspace that he controls.
 Clearances may be read back when received, and may be
issued to authorize specific operations within the
controlled airspace.
IFR flights require a readback (CARS 602.31)
It may be requested for VFR traffic
 Instructions must be complied with and acknowledged
upon receipt.
Flight Rules
 “Visual Flight Rules”
Essentially, under this set of rules the pilot assumes
responsibility for traffic and obstacle avoidance at all times,
regardless of the conditions
 “Instrument Flight Rules”
 Here, the pilot can partially share responsibility for
traffic and obstacle avoidance when in controlled
Eg, radar vectoring
Flight Rules
 “Special VFR”
 Clearance issued by the relevant ATC unit for the a/c to
continue to operate within the relevant airspace in
conditions that do not meet the published weather
minima for VFR flight.
Weather Minima
 In order to fly legally, there are a specific set of
minimum conditions that must be met.
 Composed of visibility and cloud separation criteria
 Visibility used is that recorded on the ground.
 The following minima apply to VFR flights only.
Weather Minima
 Below 1000’ AGL
 Helicopter:
1 SM Visibility
Clear of Cloud
 Fixed-Wing:
2 SM Visibility
Clear of Cloud
 NB: At night, minimum visibility is always 3 miles
Weather Minima
 Above 1000’ AGL:
 1 SM Visibility
 2000’ horizontal distance from cloud, 500’ vertical
 Controlled Airspace:
 3 SM Visibility
 1 mile horizontal separation, 500’ vertical
Within Control Zones, must also remain 500’ AGL
Weather Minima
 SVFR Only requires clear of cloud/ 1SM vis (fixed wing)
 May only be authorized in Control Zones (And at night,
only for landing)
Flight Plans and Itineraries
 Serve a dual purpose: a) ATC information (eg, Class C
intent for VFR over Winnipeg) b) SAR (when overdue)
 Required for flights occurring more than 25 nm from a/d
of departure
 Two Forms:
 Flight Plan: The more rigorous of the two, contains
detailed information pertaining to the flight, a/c, and
intended route.
Overdue after 1 hour
 Flight Itinerary: Filed with a responsible person.
Overdue after 24 hours
Flight Plans and Itineraries
 Flight Plan
 Filed with ATCU, Flight Service Station (FSS), or Community
Aerodrome Radio Station
 Arrival report filed as soon as practicable, but no later than
the SAR action time specified in the plan
 NB: Is the only type of report valid for international flight
 Flight Itinerary
 May be filed with the same agencies as specified above, or a
responsible person
 Arrival report filing is same as above, although action time
generally longer (~ 24 hours)
Cruising Altitudes
 For VFR flight up to and below 18000’, fly odd/even
thousands plus 500’
 From 18000’ thru 29000’, conform to IFR traffic and fly
whole thousands; directional criteria still apply
 From 29000’ and up, the rules change somewhat; the
altitudes now increase at 4000’-intervals only
 So, Easterly Headings (0-179) fly FL 290, 330, 370, etc.
 Westerly Headings (180-359) fly FL 310, 350, 390, etc.
Cruising Altitudes
NB. Mandatory above 3000’ AGL

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