Properties of Matter - Bangor Area School District

Report
MATTER
Can the matter be separated by physical
means?
Mixtures
Pure Substances
Constant composition
Heterogeneous
Homogeneous
Separation by chemical means
Compounds
Elements
Matter
Matter is anything that occupies space and has mass.
The particle theory of matter.
The particle theory states that…

all matter is made from particles

different particles have different properties

particles are constantly in motion
States of Matter
A solid has a definite shape and volume.
A liquid has a definite volume but no definite shape.
A gas has neither a definite volume or shape.
Gas
Liquid
Solid
SOLIDS
• the attraction between particles is strong so the
matter holds its shape. The particles are still moving,
but they are not able to slide past each other
LIQUIDS
• the attractive forces are not as strong. The particles
are able to move past each other and slide around
GAS
• the attraction between particles is so weak that they
fly in every direction filling the container that they are
held
solidification (freezing)
melting
Properties of Matter
Physical Properties:
• a quality of a substance that can be observed or
measured without changing the substance’s
chemical composition
Examples: color, texture, boiling point, density,
mass etc…
Chemical properties
• Properties the matter exhibits when chemical change
occurs
Ex. Flammability, corrosiveness, pH, reactivity
Examples of physical properties
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Boiling point
Specific gravity (at constant temperature)
Surface tension
Viscosity (at constant pressure and temp.)
Freezing point
Solubility in water (hot/cold)
Density
Melting point
Mass
Volume
Specific heat capacity
Heat
Temperature
Physical Properties Subcategories
• Extensive Properties depend upon the amount
of matter that is present.
Ex. Length, mass, volume, heat …etc
• Intensive Properties do not depend on the
amount of matter present. These properties are
the same for a given substance regardless of
how much of the substance is present.
Ex. Color, density, melting point, ductility, temp… etc
Density
• the mass of a substance per a specific
amount of volume
Density = mass
volume
• The mass and volume are directly
proportional. If one increases the other
increases
Physical and chemical change
• Physical change
– the altering of the physical form but not
composition of matter
– ex. Pounding, pulling, changes of state
• Knowledge of physical change leads to…
– the understanding of separation of mixtures
– ex. Distillation, crystallization, chromatography, filtering
Chemical change
• Chemical change
– change in which the matter is converted into
matter with different composition and
properties
Indicators of chemical change
1. heat and/or light energy
– Energy changes within the system
2. Production of gas
- release of gas from the system
3. Formation of a precipitate
- when two (or more) solutions are put
together an insoluble solid is produced
4. Color change
- the system changes color
- not always an indicator of chemical
change (can be physical
Separation of Mixtures
types of…
• Filtration
– Separation of mixture on the basis of
differences in the size of the particles
– Mostly used to separate solids from liquids
(but
filtration is used to separate all phases of matter from one another)
Ex. Air filters separate gas (air) from solid (dirt particles)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nJVbFIIycKo
• Distillation
– Based on the tendency of a substance to
vaporize (turn to a gas)
– Based on boiling point differences
– The substance in the mixture with the lowest
boiling point will vaporize first from the mixture
Ex. Crude oil  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=26AN1LfbUPc
• Chromatography
– Based on the differences in solubility
– Two types  Gas and Paper
– Mixture separates as it travels (most soluble
separates first)
Solute – substance that gets dissolved
Solvent – substance that does the dissolving
http://www.youtube.com/watc
h?v=LY44uD2miYM
Ex. Separating ink in a marker
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OKxRx0ctrl0&feature
=related
• Crystallization
– Separation of the mixture is based on
solubility differences
– Temperature changes within the mixtures
change solubility of parts of the mixture
Solubility – the amount of a solute that is able to
dissolve in a given amount of solvent
Ex. Rock candy

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