Origins of Bullying

Origins of Bullying
Eley et al. (1999) Is antisocial
behaviour genetic?
1500 pairs of British and Swedish twins were studied.
Findings: Identical (MZ) twins showed a higher
correlation of aggressive antisocial behaviour than
fraternal (DZ) twins.
Leiu & Raine (2004) Does
malnutrition lead to violence?
A 14 year study of 1000 children living on the island of
At age 3, researchers selected children suffering from
malnutrition. A control group who did not suffer from
malnutrition were also studied.
At age 8, 11, and 17 researchers
investigated how the children were
behaving in school and at home
based on either teacher or parent
Findings: Children suffering from malnutrition
showed an increase in aggressive behaviour (e.g. 51%
increase in violent behaviour by the age of 17).
Dodge (1980) How do bullies
Design: Aggressive and non-aggressive boys were given a
hypothetical story to read.
Each boy imagined that a classmate spilled a lunch tray
all over his back.
The boys were then asked about the classmate’s
intentions and how they would respond if this really
happened to them.
Findings: The aggressive boys read hostile intent into
the story 50% more frequently than the others and
responded more aggressively.
Negative attributions led to negative attitudes.
Eron (1987) Parenting and
Findings: Parents of bullies were found to be often
authoritarian-using very strict and often physical
methods of punishment.
Totten (2003) Parenting and
Girlfriend abuse
30 abusive adolescent males from a large city in
Canada were studied with semi-structured interviews.
Mean age of the boys was 15.6 years, 6 belonged to an
ethnic minority , and the rest were white.
Many were gang members and most had dropped out
of school early.
Findings: the boys had all been exposed to violent
behaviour in the family. The fathers all used violence
to control family members or to defend their honor.
In some cases, the fathers had given them instructions
on how to abuse women in particular situations.

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