Lesson 1: Making Observations Lesson 2: Teamwork at a Crime Scene Lesson 3: Forensic Science Methods Quiz #1 Lesson 4: Securing a Crime Scene Lesson 5: Recording a Crime Scene Quiz#2 Lesson 6: Direct Evidence Lesson 7: Lineups and Mug Shots Lesson 8: Picturing a Criminal Lesson 9: Physical Evidence Chapter 1 Test LESSON 1: MAKING OBSERVATIONS SWBAT: Identify inquiry skills used to solve crimes. WOD: Forensic Science- use of scientific knowledge and methods to answer legal questions IA: Discover Activity Page 6- With a partner Discuss and record what do you know about solving crimes. Answer all questions in your notebook. ML: What are the inquiry skills used to solve crimes? Act: Independently- use your observation skills to locate the list of items in the classroom. Then answer the thought questions. Sum: Exit Ticket- What do people who solve crimes base their predictions on? INQUIRY SKILLS USED TO SOLVE CRIMES • Observing- using one or more of your senses to gather information • Evidence- something that can be presented in court to make a point during a trial • Inferring- offering a reasoned opinion based on observations and experience • Predicting- stating an opinion about what will happen in the future • Hypothesis- a possible explanation for a set of observations Turn and talk Has anyone ever borrowed anything from your locker or room without asking you? How did you know your things were disturbed? Discuss with a partner (3 min) MAKING INFERENCES It is possible to make more then one inference from a set of observations. Look at the picture in your text on page 8- what do you think is happening? Write 2 inferences and make a prediction about what will happen next. Inferences Now consider the following observations have been made: • An ambulance pulls away from the house • A police officer is talking with the person who lives in the house. • The person who lives there is performing CPR on a neighbor How do these observations affect your inferences? OBSERVATION VS. INFERENCES Sometimes people confuse inferences and observations. Scenario: You have three fish in a bowl in a room. You hear a crash and run into the room. You see broken glass, water and one fish on the floor. Nearby, your cat is licking its paws. You think. “The cat knocked over the bowl and ate the other fish.” Simple rule: People use their senses to make observations. They use their ability to reason to make inferences. ACTIVITY: • You will each be given a list of items to locate within the room. • You may look for items everywhere accept in the teachers desk drawers , in the closet or anywhere that is too high for Ms. Macchiarella to reach. HA! That’s everywhere- ;o) • Do not tell others when you locate an item because it is a scavenger hunt/race. • Do not share your lists because some are different and some are the same. After you find your items answer the thought questions. Where some items harder to find then others? What made an item easy to find? What made an item hard to find? What inquiry skill did you use most during this activity? EXIT TICKET: Identify the inquiry skill being used in each of the following statements: a. The front door is open. b. The burglar ate some candy. c. The burglar stole other items. d. The burglar had a key to the apartment. LESSON 2: TEAMWORK AT A CRIME SCENE SWBAT: Explain the importance of teamwork in solving crimes. WOD: anthropologist- experts on human bones IA: Who are some of the officials involved in crime scene investigation? ML: What is the importance of teamwork at a crime scene? ACT: Benchmark #1 Skills Lab: Work with your lab team to figure out “Who Done-it”. SUM: Did working in a group make this assignment easier or more difficult? Explain. TEAM WORK AT A CRIME SCENE • What are some professionals that you might find at a crime scene? Turn and Talk: What are some questions a dispatcher should ask when a person calls? Write down at least 5 questions with your partner. • Who is first on a scene? • The 911 operator • Decides who should respond to the callfire fighter, medical examiner, ambulance, police officer, DEA. • First responsibility is to save lives. Video FYI • According to NENA- 200 million 911 calls are made each year in the U.S. most related to law enforcement. • In most jurisdictions medical examiners have replaced coroners who do not have medical training. Activity: Benchmark #1 With your team matesSolve the crime and write a statement to convince a jury “who-done-it”. Answer all questions and write your statement on loose leaf in complete sentences. LESSON # 3 FORENSIC SCIENCE METHODS SWBAT: Compare forensic science methods of today to those from the past. WOD: technologyIA: Explain your understanding of the following statement. A paper clip and a cell phone are both forms of technology. ML: Forensic Science Methods then and now- Video Act: Complete the fill in the blank and graphic organizer as you watch the video. Forensic Science- Discovery Education. Sum: How have forensic science methods changed over time? FORENSIC SCIENCE METHODS Scientists past and present design tests to solve crimes. Today there is better technology to do so. What are some methods for solving crimes that you have heard of? FILL IN THE CHART WHILE YOU WATCH THE VIDEO Method Past/Present/Both Process- What needs to be done? Who does it? Does it seem reliable/necessary? LESSON # 4- SECURING A CRIME SCENE SWBAT: Discuss how to properly secure a crime scene and the implications of when it is not correctly secured. WOD: secure- to guard or protect IA: Complete the Discover Activity pg. 16– Count the footsteps of three classmates walking from the door to their desks – use the average of their steps to estimate how many total steps your classmates would take through the room if it were a crime scene. How could we reduce this number? ML: How do police secure a crime scene? Activity: Research and Respond- Was the OJ Simpson crime scene properly secured? Read the articles and cite from the text. Sum: What was the biggest problem with securing the OJ Simpson crime scene? INTRO- STUDENT READ ALOUD- PG. 16 Why was Sherlock Holmes angry when he saw the trampled grass at the crime scene? • Investigators must secure a crime scene as soon as possible to protect the evidence. This is the responsibility of the first-responding police officer. • Transfer, loss, or contamination of evidence can occur if the area is left unsecured (Locard’s exchange principle). • The first officer on the scene will begin keeping a security log of all those who visit the crime scene. The officer will collect pertinent information and request any additional How do they secure the crime scene? SECURING THE SCENE 1. Establish Boundaries bright yellow crime scene tape, ropes, traffic cones, parked police cars, natural boundaries. Indoors – seal windows and doors 2. Control Entry Map off a single path for people to use as they come in Keep a record log of all visitors • Chain of Custody- written record of who had control of a piece of evidence from the time it was collected. • Contains names, dates, and places. HOW COULD POLICE SECURE THIS SCENE? WHAT SHOULD POLICE THINK ABOUT WHEN SECURING THIS SCENE? ACTIVITY: SECURING THE OJ SIMPSON CRIME SCENE Research the case by reading the provided articles. • List of the Evidence in the O.J. Simpson Double-Murder Trial • Forensic Investigation of the O.J. Simpson Trial After reading these articles and underlining key information respond in paragraph form: • Cite specific examples of how evidence was damaged, lost, or contaminated by crime-scene personnel. • Write a brief explanation summarizing your findings, making sure to back up your argument with sources. • Carefully check the dates of the publications, and use applied logic to conclude whether you think the forensic evidence was improperly secured. ACTIVITY: SECURING THE OJ SIMPSON CRIME SCENE Research the case by reading the provided articles. • List of the Evidence in the O.J. Simpson Double-Murder Trial • Forensic Investigation of the O.J. Simpson Trial After reading these articles and underlining key information respond in paragraph form: • Cite specific examples of how evidence was damaged, lost, or contaminated by crime-scene personnel. • Write a brief explanation summarizing your findings, making sure to back up your argument with sources. • Carefully check the dates of the publications, and use applied logic to conclude whether you think the forensic evidence was improperly secured. DAY 2: SECURING THE CRIME SCENE SWBAT: Discuss how to properly secure a crime scene and the implications of when it is not correctly secured. WOD: discreditedIA: Video- Why do you think the prosecutor decided to have Simpson try on the glove? This news story aired 17 years after the trial, why do you think this is still relevant news today? ML: Model using evidence from a text to justify your claim. THINK-PAIR-SHARE – Find evidence to support the claim- “Some of the evidence in the trial was messed up. “ Act: Complete writing your response. Please write your response on loose leaf and put a proper heading. Sum: Share: Who would like to share their response with the class? HOW TO BEGIN YOUR PARAGRAPH: Begin with a thesis statement. Think- What is the purpose of the response? How can I hook my reader? Example: OJ Simpson was acquitted in the murder of Nicole Brown Simpson due to insufficient evidence, but some believe that the evidence was not properly secured. HOW TO USE EVIDENCE FROM A TEXT TO SUPPORT YOUR CLAIMS. INSTEAD OF SAYING … • Police planted evidence. TRY USING DETAILS AND EVIDENCE FROM THE TEXT… USA Today says that Simpson’s bloody glove had to be dismissed as evidence because the “glove behind [the] guest house was planted by Detective Mark Fuhrman” It also says that the racist cop may have also planted the blood on the glove as well. NOW YOU TRY. WITH YOUR PARTNER- FIND EVIDENCE TO SUPPORT THE FOLLOWING CLAIM AND WRITE IT IN A SENTENCE. INSTEAD OF SAY THIS … • Evidence collection was messed up. SAY THIS … DAY 2 ACTIVITY: SECURING THE OJ SIMPSON CRIME SCENE • • • • • Research the case by reading the provided articles. List of the Evidence in the O.J. Simpson Double-Murder Trial Forensic Investigation of the O.J. Simpson Trial After reading these articles and underlining key information respond in paragraph form: Cite specific examples of how evidence was damaged, lost, or contaminated by crimescene personnel. Write a brief explanation summarizing your findings, making sure to back up your argument with sources. Carefully check the dates of the publications, and use applied logic to conclude whether you think the forensic evidence was improperly secured. Finish your response to be handed in at the end of the period. LESSON #5: RECORDING A CRIME SCENE SWBAT: Identify and utilize methods investigators use to record a crime scene by making a sketch. WOD: record: an item or collection of data IA: What are methods people use to record special events like birthdays, weddings, vacations, sporting events, ect. ML: What are the ways investigators record a crime scene? Long range, medium range, point of view, and close-up photos. Turn and Talk- with your partner look at the pictures on page 19 and discuss the photos. Sketching a crime scene- convert feet to meters to keep scale Activity: Complete pages 6 and 7 of the Student Handbook. Then Sketch a crime sceneStudents will work to independently sketch a crime scene using methods discussed. Sum: How is a sketch helpful, what are its limitations? HOW DO INVESTIGATORS RECORD A CRIME SCENE • Photographs- • Video- sound is off, follows a path from outside the scene to the center, no team members are in the video. • Sketches- done quickly and without much detail- investigators include the most important items. • Scale Drawings- artist uses the sketches to make 2-d drawings or models of a scene. • Written notes- must be organized and easy to read so that they can be used in trial. • Dictated notes- speaks on a voice recorder while he/she does tasks at the scene. TURN AND TALK Use your textbook page 18 and 19 to look at • Long Range Photos • Medium Range Photos • Point of View Photos • Close-up Photos With your partner• Discuss the details that can be used to compare the different types of photos. What makes them different? • Why would an investigator need to take different types of photos? • On a scale of 1-10 how well did your partner understand the different photos? SKETCH VS SCALE DRAWING Sketch• Done quickly • Shows important items • Shows actual measurements of items, walls, floors, etc Scale Drawing• Artist puts detail • Uses the sketch and actual measurements to draw or model to scale. Convert feet to meters• The vault in a bank was robbed. The actual measurements are 12ft wide, 16 ft long, and 11 ft high. If 1 meter=3.28 feet how can we convert to meters? 12/3.28= ________ meters wide. SKETCH AND LABEL THE FOLLOWING CRIME SCENE EXIT TICKET: Does your sketch have: Proper proportions? Important/key items? Labels A boundary? Exit ticket: How is a sketch helpful, what are its limitations? EXIT TICKET: Does your sketch have: Proper proportions? Important/key items? Labels A boundary? is a helpful, sketch what helpful, what are its Exit ticket: How isHow a sketch are its limitations? limitations? EXIT TICKET: Does your sketch have: Proper proportions? Important/key items? Labels A boundary? Exit ticket: How is a sketch helpful, what are its limitations? EXIT TICKET: Does your sketch have: Proper proportions? Important/key items? Labels A boundary? Exit ticket: How is a sketch helpful, what are its limitations? LESSON #6 : DIRECT EVIDENCE SWBAT: Describe the benefits and drawbacks of direct evidence. WOD: hearsayIA: Quiz # 2 on Looseleaf. Write in complete sentences. ML: What are the benefits and drawbacks of direct evidence? Discuss: “Who was that Person” Act: Direct Evidence Vs. Hearsay- Circles activity. Summary: Which of the following people can provide direct evidence? QUIZ # 2- PLEASE WRITE IN COMPLETE SENTENCES ON LOOSELEAF 1. Explain why police establish a path to enter and exit a crime scene. 2. List four methods that are used to record a crime scene. 3. How are sketch and scale drawings similar? How are they different? 4. What was one issue with evidence at the OJ Simpson crime scene? 5. The chain of custody is A. A log of visitors to a crime scene B. A record of who had control of evidence C. A list of eyewitnesses to a crime scene D. A way to secure a crime scene WHO WAS THAT PERSON? Can we recall the boy who walked in to the classroom when you were taking the quiz? What color was his shirt? What color was his hair? Was he tall or short? How old was he? Did he have any piercings? What color were his eyes? What kind of shoes was he wearing? DIRECT EVIDENCE The first-hand observations by an eye witnesses are direct evidence. • Eyewitnesses- a person who directly observes an event. Turn and DiscussWhat could be the drawbacks of using the observations of a witness as evidence in court? ACTIVITY: Students will sit in circles with their groups. The leader will whisper a story to one person who will then whisper it to the next. (telephone). In the end we will hear how the story ended up. DIRECT EVIDENCE VS. HEARSAY What happens when a story gets passed from one person to another? What do you think the word hearsay means? Why do courts not allow hearsay as evidence during a trial? SUMMARY: Exit Ticket: What are the drawbacks of direct evidence? LESSON # 7: PHYSICAL EVIDENCE SWBAT: Discuss why physical evidence is key to solving crimes. WOD: physical- tangible, can be seen, touched, and analyzed. IA: Recall with your partner- what is direct evidence and what are the advantages and disadvantages? ML: What is physical evidence? What types of physical evidence can be left behind by a criminal? The Jonbenet Ramsey case summary. Act: Read about the Jonbenet Ramsey case. Use the graphic organizer to differentiate between direct and physical evidence from the scene. Then answer the thought questions. Sum: Share out- what evidence did you think was the most convincing? WHAT IS PHYSICAL EVIDENCE? •Any object that can be used to prove that a fact is true. •It can be found at the crime scene or at another location related to the scene. •Locard’s Principal states that“Every contact leaves a trace. “ •Therefore, forensic scientists know that there is always a transfer of evidence at a crime scene no matter how careful criminals think they are. Who is Locard? Edmond Locard, a french scientist who studied both medicine and law in the early 1900’s . Locard set up his own police laboratory in 1910 and soon became famous for his research into forensic science. Give-one Get-one Brainstorm silently a list of things that might be left behind by a criminal at a crime scene. Share your list with your partner and then add something from their list to yours. Be prepared to share THE JONBENET RAMSEY CASE JonBenét Patricia Ramsey (August 6, 1990 – December 25, 1996) was an American child beauty pageant queen who was murdered in her home in Boulder, Colorado, in 1996. The sixyear-old's body was found in the basement of the family home about eight hours after she was reported missing during a police search of her home. She had been struck on the head and strangled. The case remains unsolved, even after several grand jury hearings, and continues to generate public and media interest. Video ACTIVITY: READ ABOUT THE JONBENET RAMSEY CASE THEN COMPLETE THE CHART BELOW. Direct Evidence Physical Evidence • • • • • • • • • • Critical Thinking Questions : 1. Which piece of evidence do you believe was most useful? Least? Be specific and explain why for each. 2. Why was the direct evidence in this case so important? 3. Analyze the handwriting samples, does the original letter seem to match Mrs. Ramsey’s right hand sample? LESSON 8: COLLECTING PHYSICAL EVIDENCE SWBAT: Discuss the Jonbenet Ramsey Case and how the collection of evidence may have hindered the indictment of the murderer. WOD: Indict- to convict IA: Read the first article in the packet- Write three questions that you have. Try to think of questions that could be interesting to discuss. ML: Collection of Evidence Protocols Activity: Jonbenet Ramsey Case Fishbowl Discussions. Sum: What are the biggest contributors to this crime being unsolved. COLLECTING PHYSICAL EVIDENCE Organizing the Search- The team needs to consider the crime scene and pick a search pattern before they begin searching. Common search patterns are the grid search pattern and the zone search pattern. Each pattern is designed to cover every inch of the scene in small sections at a time . KEEPING EVIDENCE USEFUL Prevent contamination • Wearing special clothing- head cover, booties, gloves • Having the right equipment- tweezers, scalpel, handlens, fingerprint powder and brush, evidence ruler, and sealable evidence bags. Chain of Custody- Accurate log that shows everyone who had contact with the evidence from the time it was collected. Names, dates, and places Must be no gap in the record DISCUSS THE JONBENET RAMSEY CASE With your assigned group you will be discussing the case. Use the questions below as a guide. The discussion director should guide the discussion by asking the questions aloud. Discussion Guiding Questions: What was the issue with the first responders to the scene? How might this have impacted the investigation, long term? What is the most compelling evidence surrounding this case? What evidence draws the most speculation? Does anybody have a question to pose to the group? What are your thoughts, feelings in regards to this case? RESPOND- In a paragraph summarize the key points of your groups discussion. What were the primary concerns. What did people agree on. What did people disagree on. What is your perspective?