The Renaissance The Renaissance begins in Italy • The Renaissance begins • • • • in Italy and spreads north to the rest of Europe. Italy was the center of trade between northern Europe and Africa. It was the center of Greco-Roman culture. It was the center of the Catholic Church. The Renaissance runs between 1300 and 1650. The Beginning • The term Renaissance • • • • means “rebirth” in Latin. It was the rebirth of art and learning. It was influenced by very powerful families such as the Medici family. The Medici’s were bankers out of Florence. The families gave support to various artists. Characteristics of the Renaissance • • • • Humanism Individualism Questioning Attitude Interest in Secular, or non-religious worldly matters. • Rise of the middle class (Disposable income) • Great achievements in the arts. Humanism • Humanism is the idea that is focused on • • • • human achievements and potential rather than religious themes. Focused on the man and his world. Concentrated on everyday human problems and relationships. Humanists focus on pleasure rather than morality. Conflicted with the traditional teachings of the Catholic Church and Medieval thinking. Medieval Art • Artists depicted subjects in an unrealistic twodimensional style • Indicated the importance of the soul over the body. • Disproportionate • Flat/Dull • Religious themes Renaissance Art • • • • Use of oil paints 3-D and realism Lifelike Influenced by GrecoRoman culture • Depth, shadows • Bright colors (oil paints) • Emotion, • Religion, myth, everyday life Leonardo da Vinci (1450-1519) • Da Vinci was considered the “Renaissance Man” • He was a : – – – – painter sculptor inventor scientist • Plans or inventions include the helicopter, parachute, and clock • Famous works: – Mona Lisa, Last Supper, Madonna on The Rocks Michelangelo (1475-1564) • As a sculptor, architect, painter, and poet, he exerted a tremendous influence • Was an friends with princes and popes • Famous works include: – David – Sistine Chapel – The Last Judgement Renaissance Writers/Machiavelli • Began to use the vernacular • • • • (vernacular = the native language) instead of classical Latin. Machiavelli, who wrote The Prince a handbook for behavior. Machiavelli was a political philosopher The Prince advised kings how to rule. In Machiavelli’s way of thinking, there are no means in which the end does not justify (The end justifies the means) Tupac (AKA Makaveli) • Tupac's alias is Makaveli. Though the spelling is different, Machiavelli advocated the staging of one's death in order to evade one's enemies and gain power. • Tupac studied Machiavelli in depth while in prison was a fan and had read his books several times. • Perhaps Tupac is taking his advice. Machiaveli wrote two books before his death. • Machiavelli's books were called, "Book 1," and, "Book 2." The CD's of, "All Eyez On Me," are entitled the same The Renaissance Moves North • Because of the plague, it was not until 1450 did northern Europe enjoy the economic growth that helped support the Renaissance in Italy. • Northern artists and writers imitated Italian styles while adding new methods and ideas of their own. • As a result of the printing press, books became more available and people became more literate. Humanism in Europe • Northern Humanists stressed education and classical learning, however, unlike the Italian humanists, they emphasized religious themes. • They believed that the revival should be used to bring about religious and moral reform. Shakespeare • The best known Renaissance writer was William Shakespeare. • Between 1590 and 1613 he wrote 37 plays that are still preformed around the world. The Printing Revolution • In 1456, Johann Gutenberg printed the bible using movable metal type on a machine called a Printing Press. • Printed books became cheap and easier to produce that hand copies. • Now, readers gained access to broad range of knowledge (Medicine to Religion) • The printing press would greatly contribute to the Protestant Reformation.