Deviance in Sports I. Definitions of Norm A. Behavioral expectations and cues within a society B. A standard of conduct that should or must be followed C. A way of behaving typical of a certain group D. A range of accepted actions, traits, or ideas that are consistent with a societies values Brainstorm Sport Norms • Pick two groups from the following list and write down the Norms. • A Specific Sport? Athletes? Non-Athletes? White? Black? Latino? Hispanic? European? Male? Female? Elementary? Middle? High School? College? Pro? II. Norms of the Sport Ethic A. Sport Ethic-A set of norms accepted as the dominant criteria for defining what is required and accepted as an athlete in power and performance sports 1. An athlete is dedicated to “the game” above all other things 2. An athlete strives for distinction 3. An athlete accepts risks and plays through pain 4. An athlete accepts no obstacles in the pursuit of possibilities Which of the norms is Jay Cutler being criticized for in the photo? B. The norms of sport ethic are accepted in cultures where it is important to be dedicated, strive for improvement and make sacrifices to pursue your dreams—Ex. United States III. Deviance A. An action, trait or idea that falls outside the range of acceptance as determined by people with the power to enforce norms in a social world B. Underconformity-based on ignoring or rejecting norms—leads to anarchy C. Normal-commonly acceptable behavior D. Overconformity- deviance based on accepting and conforming to norms without question— leads to fascism IV. Deviance of the Sport Ethic A. Many athletes overconform to the norms of the sport ethic even when it creates problems, causes pain, disrupts family life, jeopardizes health and safety or shortens life expectancy B. Reasons for overconformity 1. Playing sports is so exciting and exhilarating that athletes will do almost anything to stay involved 2. Being selected to play high-performance sports often depends on a perceived willingness to overconform placed by coaches and managers 3. Exceeding norms creates a feeling of togetherness that encourages athletes to put their body on the line for their teammates – SI Article V. Athletes most likely to be deviant A. Athletes who have a low self-esteem or are so eager to be accepted as athletes that they will do whatever it takes to be accepted by their peers B. Athletes who see achievement in sports as the only way to get ahead, gain respect and become significant C. Male athletes who link together being an athlete and being a man so that athletics and manliness become one in their minds VI. Problems with studying Deviance in Sports A. Actions accepted in sports may be deviant in other spheres of society and actions accepted in society may be deviant in sports – http://ttc.depere.k12.wi.us/safevideos/Video.asp x?id=J77exWQX6vg – If society’s rules don’t apply to you on the athletic field, why should they apply off the field? – Pick an athlete that has had a problem with the law and explain why they may think it is OK Violence • Oj? Violence in Sports • Violence is accepted when soldiers, police and athletes are protecting people or pursuing victories in the name of others. • For example: If a football player hits an official because the official threw a flag, that is undercomformity and is severely punished, but if a player is told to be aggressive by their coach and delivers a punishing tackle which breaks another players ribs, that is OK. Types of Violence • Brutal Body Contact-hits, tackles, body checks • Borderline Violence-brush back pitch, well placed elbow or knee, “NFL Big Hits”, fistfight (hockey) • Quasi-Criminal Violence-cheap shots, late hits, flagrant fouls • Criminal Violence-assaults that occur after the game or during a game that are premeditated and severe enough to kill Examples • Violence and Masculinity – Hockey Dad in Massachusetts (p203, Oprah 8 min) • Violence off the field – If you play violent sports can you turn it off when you are no longer playing? – Violence against animals • Mike Vick (60 Minutes 14 min) – Violence against women • Kobe Bryant • Ben Roethlisberger • Violence among spectators – With athletes--Pacers v. Pistons – With each other B. Deviance in sports often involves an unquestioned acceptance of norms, rather than a rejection of norms 1. The athletes and people around them think what they are doing is “normal” 2. If “everyone is doing it” is it the norm? Whatever it takes or Cheating? • Would you use a corked bat? • Would you cheat in the classroom to stay eligible? • Would you cheat in the sport when you could “get away with it?” • Would you use performance enhancing drugs? • Supplement Survey 30 Days • Anti-Aging C. Training and performance in sports are now based on such new forms of science and technology that people have not yet developed norms to guide the actions of athletes and others in sports 1. Year round training 2. Supplements 3. Steroids, HGH, Blood Doping, Masking Agents • Doping for Gold Video Steroids • Reading 4th Grade Textbook. Talking about “Heroes” VII. What should be done to prevent deviance in sports? A. Drug Testing 1. Who should pay for it? 2. Can it keep up with the athletes? B. Governing Agencies C. Educational Programs D. Nothing. Why should athletes be singled out? Colleges do not ban students from using caffeine to stay up all night studying for a final. Employers do not stop people form using hormone therapies that help them get back to work or stay working.