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A Talk to Middle School Teachers of English
张则玫
Research
Eclectic Approach
TBLT: Theory, Experiment, Tasks
1
translation, direct,
audio-lingual,
functional, etc.
教学理论
教学法学派
理论
教法
教学技巧
教材
+
关系
技巧
CAI
教师
学生
?
学生
CAI, TBLT,
课堂
TPR, MMC
2
教学
综合
技巧
写作
词汇
听说
阅读
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Theory, method, technique
Theory
(A)
Theory
(B)
Theory
(C)
Method
(A)
Method
(B)
Method
(C)
Method
(A)
Method
(B)
Method
(A)
Techniques
1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
Techniques
1, 2, 3, 4, 5
Techniques
1, 2, 3
Techniques
1, 2, 3, 4
Techniques
1, 2, 3, 4, 5
Techniques
1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
2, 5
2, 4, 6
1, 2, 5
3, 4
1, 4
3, 4
Eclectic Approach: A bundle of techniques
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Eclectic Approach
The Audio-lingual
Method
The Audio-visual
Approach
Communicative
Approach
Mechanical drills Meaningful drills Communicative drills
MMC
(1970-1971, C. B. Paulston)
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学派间的关系 —— 对立关系
翻译法
直接法
(1)把外语教学法的理论基
础建立在语言上
(2)主张读写领先
(1)把外语教学法的理论基
础建立在言语上
(2)主张口语领先
(3)用母语教外语
(3)用外语教外语
(4)以语法教学为纲
(4)不用形式语法
(5)翻译为教学手段和目的
(5)不用翻译
(6)以演绎法教语法
(6)以归纳法教语法
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学派间的关系 —— 对立关系
认知法
听说法
(1)学习语言是复杂的大脑 (1)语言是结构模式
理性认识活动
(2)操练以理解为基础
(2)主张反复地机械操练
(3)主张借助、利用本族语 (3)不用或限制使用本族语
(4)听说读写齐头并进
(4)口语第一,听说领先
(5)主张创造情景,进行交 (5)句型为教材主要内容
际性的操练
(6)纠主错误,容小错
(6)及时纠正学生的错误
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学派间的关系 —— 发展关系
(1)翻译法
认知法
(2)直接法
听说法
视听法
交际法
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学派间的关系 —— 共存关系
(1)和平共处
(2)不断完善
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TBLT——Theory
Degrees of gaining knowledge
Learning style
Lecture
Degrees
5%
Reading by yourself
Audio-visual
Demonstration
10%
20%
30%
Discussion
Practice by doing
Teach others
50%
75%
90%
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TBLT——Experiment
Learning style
Learning
style
Auditory
Visual
Tactile
Total
Number of
trainees
83
109
78
270
%
31
40
29
100
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TBLT——Tasks
My name
is Mary.
My name is
Sophia. Her
name is Mary.
My name is
Jane. Her
name is Mary.
Her name is
Sophia.
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Give orders
ship
house
Touch
something
green.
tree
fruits
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Give orders
Stand with
our teacher.
We stand with
our teacher.
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Find it !
Where is the
police officer?
?????
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Winner !
apple
Monday
eraser
first
eight
class
hello
May
work
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Arrangement of the seats
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Arrangement of the seats
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“Linguistics in
Language Teaching”
By D. A. Wilkins:
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By D. A. Wilkins:
Although much research has been conducted on
the effectiveness of different methods of teaching
foreign languages, it is really very difficult to
demonstrate scientifically what is or is not a “good”
method. The truth is that a lot seems to depend on
factors such as the personal qualities of the teacher
and his ability to get on well with his students, which
are difficult things to measure.
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Because we have lacked solid scientific
evidence, the teaching of foreign languages in
general has been for a long time the victim of
fashion. Viewed historically, language teaching
has always been subject to change, but the
process of change has not resulted from the
steady accumulation of knowledge about the most
effective ways of teaching languages: it has been
more the product of changing fashion.
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In other words, though teachers have tended to
leap from one method to another as each new fashion
turns up, they do not seem to have become any wiser. If
then we decide to stop looking for the one definitive and
perfect method, and concentrate instead on acquiring
skills and techniques, what should be our criterion for
selecting these? Which should we adopt and which
reject? The answer must be simply: adopt those which
are successful. If it works, use it.
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Every language teacher should begin by considering
what the aims of his pupils are, both in the short and the
long run, and judge success by whether these are
achieved. The question of objectives will crop up again
and again in our work; and it is one which should never be
far from our minds, whatever aspect of TEFL we are
considering. We began this article by favoring an eclectic
approach to TEFL and encouraging pursuit of successful
techniques rather than methods.
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关于任务型教学
1、任务型教学
2、TBLT的特点
3、TBLT的优点
4、TBLT的意义
5、TBLT的五个要素
6、TBLT应注意的问题
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特点:
1、Linguistic outcome
2、Accuracy, Complicity, Fluency
3、Learning by doing
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优点:
1、Knowing why to do
2、Leaving out unnecessary details
3、Authentic material
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意义:
1、加强自觉性
2、有成就感
3、激发自我完善意识
4、培养责任心
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意义:
5、锻炼性格、培养交际能力
6、培养语感
7、考察综合语言能力
8、向真实语言交际过度
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要素:
1、要尽可能真实
2、要有明确的目标和目的
3、要有过程
4、要使用语言
5、要有结果
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应注意的问题:
1、明确目标
4、明确角色
2、确定内容
5、组织周到
3、便于操作
6、“动”而不乱
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