Project FALCON Sanna Atherton Jenny Woodruff Ben Godfrey 11kV Network Challenges Inform long term investment decisions Alleviate network constraints T1 – Dynamic Asset Rating T2 – Auto Load Transfer T3 – Meshed Network T4 – Energy Storage T5 – Distributed Generation T6 – Demand Side Management Engineering Commercial Select the best technique Carbon Cost Implementation Speed Network Performance Network losses Telecoms blueprint for the future Develop future load scenarios • Are the current profiles sufficient? • Do we need more sophisticated customer profiles ? • To find out: – Model different levels of uptake of low carbon technology – Build customer profiles from types of use – Create a larger set of customer types • SIM visualises expected constraints Share what we learn www.westernpowerinnovation.co.uk Phased Delivery 2011 Mobilise Partner Contracts Agreed 2012 2014 2013 Build Design SIM Blueprint Consultation SIM Built Implement Trials New Load Scenarios Created 2015 Consolidate & Share Trials Data Analysed Final Report Produced Scenario Investment Model(SIM) What does it do? • Network analysis for a Scenario encompassing many years. • Applies possible techniques to constraints • Assess solutions against multiple criteria (cost, practicality, CIs CMLs etc.) • Analysis & Visualisation of results Use of SIM Falcon After Falcon • Guidelines on alternatives to reinforcement • Best options for this type of problem? • In which conditions is this solution suitable? • To support long term network planning e.g. for capital program / price control. • 11kV Network planning tool • Evaluate other solutions than used in Falcon How will it work? Now Time Assessment time horizon Optimisation Now Time Assessment time horizon SIM components Simulation Harness Manage simulation branching Network Modelling Tool Load data Network data Economic module Optimisation / prioritisation Results store Identify constraints Model techniques Network edits Data mining tool Calculate CML/CI , losses Network visualisation Visualisation Load estimation Load Data Feature Past Future “Worst” scenario Winter Could be winter, summer max, summer min or any time. Planning aim Design to avoid constraints Understand duration and nature of constraints , may manage with dynamic techniques. Planning data requirements Winter maximum for average cold spell Evaluate half hourly over many years Typical days (season, day type) Monitoring requirements Monitoring at primary substation. View of power flows throughout the circuit to support dynamic techniques. Plus predictions Half Hourly Load Estimates present day Estimation Method Settlement data Energy model Network Measurements Quality Metrics & Analysis How well can we estimate loads today? Can we substitute estimates for monitoring equipment? Cost Fully Estimated Optimum Uncertainty Fully monitored Load Estimation – Industry Data • Based on the process used for settlement • Half Hourly estimates for non half hourly metered customers • Uses Estimated Annual Consumption + Profile coefficients for 8 different customer types. Add in Half hourly metered load, unmetered supplies, losses. Does this give us a good estimate? If so then use past data for similar day for real time estimation. But not so good for predicting load in 20 years time. Energy Model • Wider range of customer types (Dwelling type & age, heating system, occupancy, demographics ) • Customer Propensity Differential uptake of new technologies. • Models different types of electricity usage (Heating, lighting, appliances, etc.) • Calculate impact of new technologies / changed efficiencies on load profile Future Energy Profiles & Scenarios 1800 1800 1600 1600 1400 1400 1200 1200 1000 1000 800 800 600 600 400 400 200 200 EV charging Entertainment (TV, DVD, games consoles etc.) Changes reflecting Scenario 0 00:00 01:00 02:00 03:00 04:00 05:00 06:00 07:00 08:00 09:00 10:00 11:00 12:00 13:00 14:00 15:00 16:00 17:00 18:00 19:00 20:00 21:00 22:00 23:00 00:00 01:00 02:00 03:00 04:00 05:00 06:00 07:00 08:00 09:00 10:00 11:00 12:00 13:00 14:00 15:00 16:00 17:00 18:00 19:00 20:00 21:00 22:00 23:00 0 EV charging Entertainment (TV, DVD, games consoles etc.) Computers Computers Dishwasher & Laundry Dishwasher & Laundry Cooking appliances Cooking appliances Lighting Lighting Heating system Heating system Always on ( Fridge, freezer, security system, mains wired fire alarms etc.) Customer type A (present day) Always on ( Fridge, freezer, security system, mains wired fire alarms etc.) Customer type A (2020) Engineering Intervention Techniques Dynamic Asset Rating 33kV Underground Cables 33/11kV Transformers 11kV Underground Cables 11kV Overhead Conductors Real Time Ampacity Calculation to Control Cyclic Overload Ratings 11k/415V Transformers Temperature Models Technique 1 Outcomes Impacts • Capacity of assets increased • Change in Planning Standards • Increased capital costs • Potential for greater losses • Enhanced visibility of asset operation Learning Objectives • Comparing implementations • Development of thermal models • Thermal inertia of asset types • Modular installation across an existing network Operational • Integration with existing Control • Understanding of reliability of predictions • Active intervention prior to thermal excursions • Pre and post fault running arrangements Automatic Load Transfer 33kV 11kV 33kV 11kV Technique 2 Outcomes Impacts • Increase in utilisation factor • Effects on switchgear duty • Increased capital costs • Reduction of ampere-miles travelled and reduced losses • Risk of Maloperations Learning Objectives Operational • Understand variability of feeder loads • Dealing with automated control routines • Using customer load profile to determine connection strategy • Best placement of automated equipment • Optimisation of network for different running arrangements • Pro-actively anticipating load demands • Better management of large loads near multiple small customers Meshed Networks 33kV 11kV 33kV 11kV Technique 3 Outcomes Impacts • Enhance power quality • Increase in customer security • Increased capital costs • Further complexity of circuits • Fast, reliable and error- free communications needed Learning Objectives Operational • How to retrofit meshing on an existing network • Using new protection techniques across a communications network • Required grading times for IP based protection on the 11kV • Integration with existing protection • Fault level management requirements • Post-fault isolation and re-energisation routines • Changes to standard switchgear specifications Energy Storage 33kV 11kV 00:00 02:00 04:00 06:00 08:00 10:00 12:00 14:00 16:00 18:00 20:00 22:00 00:00 160% 140% 120% 100% 80% 60% 40% 20% 0% + - + - + - + - Network Management System + - Technique 4 Outcomes Impacts • Carbon offsetting through storage systems • Physical sizing of storage assets on the network • Reduction in I2R losses • Increase in storage losses • Lifespan of battery chemistries Learning Objectives Operational • Optimum charge/discharge windows • Using distribution assets for ancillary grid services • Multiple set collaboration across an HV feeder • Best placement of storage on the system • Using power electronic devices to address power quality issues • Lifespan of battery versus running operation • Protection requirements • Integration with control environment Commercial Intervention Techniques What Services could we use? Demand Reduce demand • • • reducing activity time-shift load switch to own generation Generation Increase or reduce generation Event related An unplanned event has occurred which results in a network issue immediately, or in the next few hours. Seasonal Short lived network issues occur when the network is in its normal state. Issues are regular and predictable. Primary substation HV Feeder Post Event Demand Side Response Challenges Location Location Location Learning Customers willing and able to respond? • • • • Commercial frameworks? • Use of Aggregators • Common template Practicalities of implementation? • Communicating requirements • Measuring response Reliability? • Realistic models for use in SIM How much load is flexible Can customers see benefits How much financial reward How should reward be structured Project FALCON Any questions?