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Cardiovascular system
Mary Grace Stewart
What is the cardiovascular system?
• The cardiovascular system involves the
circulation of blood, the delivery of nutrients
to cells, and the removal of cell’s waste.
Parts the make up the system
• Blood vessels
– Arteries
– Veins
– Arterioles
• metarteriole
– Ventricules
• thoroughare
– capillaries
• Heart
• valves
• blood
Blood vessels carry blood throughout
the body delivering nutrients and
removing waste produced by cells.
The basic structure of a blood vessel
The center of
the vessel is
called the
lumen.
Also called the
basement
membrane
The Tunica Media is made of
smooth muscles
Arteries
• Carry blood away from the heart
• Carry nutrients
• Carry oxygenated blood (except for the
pulmonary artery)
• High pressure(spews blood out when cut)
• Low volume
• Because the high pressure forces the blood one
direction, there is no need for valves in the
arteries
• Elastic Arteries ( contains Elastin, so that they
can expand)(look like balloons)
– Large artery
– Medium artery
• Muscular arteries (lined with smooth muscle for
resistance)
– Small artery
– arteriole
Major Arteries
• Chest
– aorta(very important)
• Neck
– Common carotid
– External carotid
– Internal carotid
• Arm and forearm
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
Subclavian
Axillary
Cephalic
Brachial
Deep brachial
Ulnar
radial
• Abdomen and pelvis
– Descending aorta
– Common iliac
– External iliac
– Internal iliac
• Thigh and leg
– Femoral
– Deep femoral
– Popliteal
– Anterior tibial
– Posterior tibial
– Fibular(peroneal)
Veins
• Carry blood toward heart
• Carries cell’s waste (usually CO2)
• The blood carried is deoxygenated(because the
oxygen and nutrients were delivered to the
cells/organs) (except in the pulmonary vein)
• Low pressure( when it’s cut the blood pools then
clots)
• High volume (65% of all blood)
• Contains many valves to insure blood goes one
direction
Major Veins
• Neck
– External jugular
– Internal jugular
• Arm and forearm
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
Subclavian
Axillary
Cephalic
Brachial
Basilic
Median cubital
Median antebrachial
Major veins cont
• Chest
– Superior vena cave(important)
• Abdomen and Pelvis
–
–
–
–
Inferior vena cava(very important to circulation)
Common iliac
External iliac
Internal iliac
• Thigh and leg
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
Femoral
Deep femoral
Greater saphenous
Popliteal
Small saphenous
Posterior tibial
Anterior tibial
Structure of vein
Arteriole and venule branch off the
arteries and vein to carry blood to
capillaries
• These are smaller than arteries and veins but larger
than capillaries
• The arteriole are the main regulators of blood pressure
• When arterioles meet capillary beds the smaller
connecting vessel is not a capillary but a METarteriole,
which though smaller than arteriole contains the same
smooth muscle
• After the blood goes through the capillary bed, it goes
through a small vessel , not another capillary, but a
thoroughfare, which contains no smooth muscle. The
blood then reached the venule to proceed its cycle.
Capillary branch off from venules and
arterioles to supply nutrients and
remove waste from cells via blood
• The part that gives the nutrients, oxygen and other necessities to
organs/cells
• Three kinds
– Continuous
– Fenestrated
– Discontinuous
• Four ways to release stuff
–
–
–
–
Diffusion
Vesicle(ride on one)
Intercellular cleft(go through)
Fenestration
• Pre-capillary sphinctors are bands of muscles around the branches of the
capillary bed that can tighted and prevent blood flow, sending the blood
straight through the bed and eventually to the venule and then ventrucle
• There are also veins on the heart itself they
are called coronary vessels(both veins and
arteries). They serve the heart
• On the tunica externa there are sometimes on
the very large vessels, other small vessels on
the big vessel
Heart
• Pumps the blood cell’s need for nutrients and
waste removal throughout the body
circulation
Pulmonary Circulation
• Pulmonary-pumps blood from the right atrium
to the right ventricle then into the pulmonary
trunk, which then divides into pulmonary
arteries, which take deoxygenated blood
brought from the superior and inferior vena
cava, to the lungs where they receive oxygen
and release wastes, most commonly CO2. it
then is pumped back into the heart. It goes
through the pulmonary vein into the left
atrium
Systemic circulation
• This occurs after pulmonary circulation has
turned the deoxygenated blood from the right
atrium and ventricle into oxygenated blood
and placed in the left atrium. From there the
blood is pumped into the left ventricle where
it is then pumped into the aorta, the largest
vessel in the body. (very wide). The aorta
takes the blood to circulate through the body
and back again.
Coronary Circulation
• The left and right coronary arteries branch
from the aorta and connect to the left and
right sides of the heart. These vessels provide
the heart with the oxygen and nutrients it
needs to pump blood
• The coronary sinus is a vein on the back side
of the heat. It returns deoxygenated blood
from the myocardium of the heart to the vena
cavi
Hepatic Portal circulation
• Veins from the stomach and intestines,
instead of taking blood back to the heart, they
take the nutrient rich blood to the liver, the
liver removes toxin , stores sugars, and
processes the products of digestion before
they get to other body tissues. The blood is
then finally returned to the heart throught the
inferior vena cava
Diagram for systemic
Valves
• insure blood is flowing one direction
• 4 major valves in the heart and other valves
through out the chain of veins
• 4 in the heart separate chamber
• Valves are connected to the inside of its
chamber by papillary muscles and tiny
tendons
4 valves in heart
• Tricuspid- insures blood flow from the right
atrium to the right ventricle
• Pulmonary valve- insured blood flow from the
right ventricle to the pulmonary trunk
• Mitral valve- insures blood flows from the left
atrium to the left ventricle
• Aortic ventricle- insure blood flow from the
left ventricle to the aorta
Lub dub
• Lub(first heart sound)
tricuspid valve and mitral valve shut
( pulmonary and aortic just opened but cant
hear that)
• Dub(second heart sound) pulmonary and
aortic valves shutting ( tricuspid and mitral
opening)
• The time In between lub and dub is called
systole
• the time between each lub dub is call diastole
blood
• Made up of :
– Red blood cells
– White blood cells
– Platelets
– Liquid plasma
Red blood cells
•
•
•
•
•
•
Known as erythrocytes
Most common blood cells
Can make up 45% of blood volume
Produced from stem cells in red bone marrow
Disk shaped with inward curve on both sides
Contain no nucleus and therefore no DNA to
repair themselves
• Transports oxygen through a red pigment called
hemoglobin which contains iron and proteins.
White blood cells
• Known as leukocytes
• Important to immune system
• 2 major classes
– Granular leukocytes
Three types
• Neutrophils-contain digestive enzymes that neutralize bacteria
• Eosinphilis-have digestive enzymes that digest viruses
• Basophils- release histmine to intensify allergic reactions to protect form
parasites
– Agranular leukocytes
Two classes
• Lymphocytes-fight off viral infections and some produce antibodies against
infections and pathogens
• Monocytes- make cells that engulf and ingest pathogens and dead cells form
wounds or infections
Platelets
• Known as thrombocytes
• Small cell fragments that clot the blood and
form scabs
• Form in red bone marrow when a big
megakaryocyte cell busts into fragments
• Do not have nuclease
• Only survive at most a week before they are
captured by other cells
Plasma
• Liquid part of blood
• 55% of bloods volume
• Mixture of water(90%), proteins, and
dissolved substances
• The proteins found in plasma are antibodies
and albumins
• Dissolved substanced can include glucose,
oxygen, carbon dioxide, electrolytes,
nutrients, and cellular waste
Connections
• The cardiovascular system affects all other
systems of the body because it supplies the
whole body and its organs with the nutrients
they need to function
• The skeletal system include a few more
connections with the cardiovascular system
like red blood cells come from red bone
marrow, and the ribs protect the heart
Connect cont.
• The diaphragm which is a muscle is the chest
supports the heart and helps hold it up
• The lungs and heart are very closely connected in
pulmonary circulation , and so the respiratory
and cardiovascular systems are connected
• some Hormones from the endocrine system can
increase blood pressure
• Both the immune, lymphatic, and cardiovascular
systems contain white blood cells.
Defect
• VSD
• Ventricular septal defect
• occurs when an infant has a hole in their
interventicular septum. This septum is split into
two parts, the membranous and the muscular.
The tear usually occurs in the membranous part
of the septum
• this defect is quite common and most never
need an operation on it, but some do eventually
need to have the hole surgically closed.
Fun facts
• A kitchen faucet would need to be turned on all the
way for at least 45 years to equal the amount of blood
pumped by the heart in an average lifetime
• Everyday the heart produces enough energy to drive a
truck 2o miles. In a lifetime, that’s enough to drive to
the moon and back
• Prolonged lack of sleep can cause irregular jumping
heartbeats called premature ventricular contractions
• Atrium is Latin for entrance hall and ventricle is Latin
for little belly
Citations
• http://www.innerbody.com/image/cardov.html
• http://www.getbodysmart.com/ap/circulatorysys
tem/vessels/menu/menu.html
• http://www.khanacademy.org/science/healthcar
e-and-medicine/the-heart
• http://www.highlands.edu/academics/divisions/s
cipe/biology/faculty/harnden/2122/notes/cvbv.h
tm
• http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/ventricularseptal-defect/DS00614/DSECTION=treatmentsand-drugs
Citations for pictures
• http://www.collegeofphlebology.com/Phlebology
/media/COP/Stills%20with%20text/structure-ofa-vein.jpg
• http://www.froedterthealth.org/upload/images/c
ommunity-memorial/services/heart/coronaryarteries.jpg
• http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons
/e/e5/Diagram_of_the_human_heart_(cropped).
svg
GAME
• https://jeopardylabs.com/play/cardiovascularsystem151

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