1815-1855 The Peoples Voice is Heard

Report
LIFE IN UPPER & LOWER CANADA
1815-1855
Chapter 1 & 2- Class Notes
Rebellions of Upper & Lower Canada
British North America
 Responsible Government
GEOGRAPHY OF UPPER AND
LOWER CANADA
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Borders what is now New Brunswick;
northeast area of United States; & Great
lakes
Upper Canada- Southern Ontario
Lower Canada- Quebec and Newfoundland
Upper and Lower Canada both British
Colonies
Lower Canada mainly French speaking
“Canadiens”
Upper Canada mainly English speaking
people
MAP OF UPPER & LOWER
CANADA
4 MAIN GROUPS IN LOWER
CANADA:
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Habitant: (French) tenant farmer;
rent land; poor
Seigneur: (French) land owner;
wealthy and powerful
Merchant: (English) business owner;
fur & timber industry; wealthy and
powerful
Professionals: (French & English)
doctors, lawyers, etc.; middle class;
seeking democracy
LOUIS-JOSEPH PAPINEAU
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Lower Canada wealthy seigneur and member of the
Legislative Assembly
Had strong support of French land owning and
political elite
Conservative- favored doing things traditional &
slow way
Served as officer in militia by defending British
North America from Americans during war of
1812
Elected speaker of the Legislative Assembly
of Lower Canada
Became leader of the Parti Canadien
political party
GOVERNMENT IN LOWER
CANADA
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Governor-British appointed
Legislative Council- English-speaking
merchants and seigneurs; friends of Governor;
appointed not elected; veto power
Legislative Assembly voted by citizens
Two political parties dominated- Chateau
Clique, Parti Canadien (Parti Patriote)
Chateau Clique- Wealthy British and French
who supported British rule
Parti Canadien- Wealthy and poor Frenchearly separatists
GOVERNMENT IN UPPER & LOWER
CANADA- CONSTITUTIONAL ACT, 1791
UNREST IN LOWER
CANADA
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British merchants wanted to increase taxes for canals,
harbors and roads for merchant use - few roads were built
to help farmers
Increased immigration from Great Britain began to
threaten French culture and language
1832, immigrant ship brought disease cholera, killed 5500
Legislative assembly(French -speaking) hard to make laws
1836, crops failed, Canadians face starvation
1837, economic depression, English merchants blamed
THE ARMED REBELLION IN
LOWER CANADA
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British Army versus Patriote Army (Rebels)
Began on November 23, 1837 at St. Denis; rebel
victory
Rebels built a fortress at St. Charles to fight the
British but lost there and later at Saint-Eustache
– Baker's Farm – Lacolle – Odelltown & Beauharnois
Pappineau fled to U.S
After all the fighting 12 were hung 58 were sent
to Australia and 12 hundred were set free.
LIFE IN UPPER CANADA
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Pioneer homestead start from scratch
and forced native inland
Most habitant were subsistence farmers
meaning they only farm for their family
Life in towns was easier
Town were hubs
Town supplied a people with basic
service
Transportation mostly walking
GOVERNMENT OF UPPER
CANADA
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Lieutenant(British appointed) highest
ranking
Legislative and Executive Council 2nd
highest
Executive and Legislative dominated
government business and social life
Legislative assembly (Elected by voters)
3rd highest
Had little power law has to be approved
by council and Lieutenant
FAMILY COMPACT
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Small group of powerful people in upper
Canada
As well as friends and supporters known as
Tories
Didn’t want US government to be part of
Canadian government
Defended tradition
Believed power should be in the hands of few
capable people (themselves)
Believed Church of England should have power
Loyal to Great Britain
WHO ARE THE REFORMERS AND
WHAT DID THEY OPPOSE?
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Opposed the power of family compact
Wanted changes in government and society of
upper Canada
Divided into moderate and radical groups.
Robert Gourlay - plan to bring people from Britain
to farm in upper Canada
William Lyon Mackenzie - 1824, established “the
colonial advocate” a newspaper that spoke out on
land problems, power of family compact and
question to who was a upper Canadian
Sir Francis Bond Head - Appointed Lieutenant governor of Upper Canada in 1835, was Reformer
for short period but rejected
ARMED REBELLION OF UPPER
CANADA
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William Lyon Mackenzie turned people against
government in Northern Toronto
Radicals wanted upper Canada like the American
government
December 5 Mackenzie led 800 men down Yonge
street in Toronto
In the United States Sir Francis bond head
tried to raise an army to liberate upper Canada
giving 120 hectares of land for whoever would
join him
Caught for breaking legal neutrality between
Canada and the US jail 11 months
AFTERMATH OF THE
REBELLION
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Lower Canada became even worse than
before the rebellion
Upper Canada afraid to speak out
because moderate reformers were
branded as rebels
Prime minister decided to send Lord
Durham as governor general
LORD DURHAM AND HIS
REPORT
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John George Lambton (Lord Durham) sent to Quebec
City as governor general.
Suggested solutions for rebellions in Upper and
Lower Canada.
Wrote “report on Affairs of British Canada” also
known as Durham report
Named “Radical Jack” in British House of Commons
because of radical policies.
Upper and Lower Canada unite and become one colony,
called United Province of Canada - would unite English
speaking people, would give them majority in gov’t
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New colony should have responsible government -
Local powers handled by colony: Imperial powers
written, Governor advised by Executive Council only.
THE ACT OF UNION, 1841
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Aim: create single government, establish
English as official language
Was first step toward Confederation
Canada was split as Canada West (Upper
Canada) and Canada East (Lower Canada,
Ontario)
In 1847, Lord Elgin became governor
Executive Council/Cabinet got most power
and are responsible to Legislative Assembly
Many members formed political parties to
achieve power.
Nova Scotia:1847, New Brunswick: 1854,
Newfoundland:1855, Prince Edward Island:
1851. Received responsible gov’t in these
years.
THE ACT OF UNION, 1841
THE ACT OF UNION, 1841
PLANTING THE SEED
OF NATIONHOOD
1815-1855
Why were some events in Canada’s
history key in allowing us to become a
nation?
WHO OCCUPIED EACH COLONY
IN UPPER & LOWER CANADA?
Lower Canada
Population increased from: 250 000 in 1806 to 717 000 in
1841
• Very high birth rates among French speaking population
• In addition British and American immigrants settled the
eastern townships that had been set aside for English
speaking farmers
•
Upper Canada
• Before 1812 loyalists settled upper Canada
• After 1812 a wave of settlers from great Brittan took their
place
• Population Increased from: 71 000 in 1806 to 432 000 in
1841
UPPER AND LOWER CANADA
Life in Lower Canada
 Male ruling society
 3 major groups- French Speaking Habitants,
French Speaking Professional Men, and English
Speaking Merchants
 The French scared of Adapting to the English
way of life
 Merchants were newcomers of lower Canada
 Wanted roads, and harbours-paid from
government taxes
 Professional Men well educated, wanted to
lead the colonies
 Saw British as cultural threat formed a
party called “ parti canadiens”
3 main groups:
 French Speaking Habitants (Tenant Farmers) – Main Concern:
Scarcity of Land, Poverty, Fear of English Speaking new comers
 English Speaking Merchants (Rich, Powerful) – Main Concern:
Infrastructure
 French Speaking Professional Men (Newest “Group”) – Separate
French/ Canadian nation
Life in Upper Canada
Daily Life in Upper Canada
 More fields were cleared in Upper Canada
 Villages began to grow in places that were not convenient for
farmers
Kingston
 Developed as a British military for lake Ontario
 Was the largest and most important town in Upper Canada for
many years
York
 Queen’s rangers began clearing land to build a fort in 1793
 In 1834, it was renamed Toronto
Services in the Towns
 By the 1840’s cities were installing sewer systems
 In the 1820’s and 1830’s started to establish volunteer fire
departments
Transportation
 Walking was often the safest and fastest way to get around
 Unpaved streets in towns were unpaved streets turned to mud
Louis-Joseph Papineau
 Strong supporter of the old French order in Lower Canada
 Served as a officer in the military defending British North
America during the war of 1812
 Elected to be in the legislative assembly of Lower Canada in
1809
 Leader of Parti Candien
GOVERNMENT OF UPPER AND LOWER
CANADA
Government of Lower Canada
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Established by Constitutional act in 1791
Power limited by governors and councils
Members of legislative councils were voted in for life
English concerns were usually different from French concerns
The group which the most power was Chateau Clique
Believed that power should be in hands of a few capable people
Wanted the Roman Catholic church to stay power
Government of Upper Canada
 In 1830 government remained the same as the constitutional act in
1791
 Two political groups the Torries and the Reformers
 Appointed Legislative council to Executive council
 Elected the Legislative Assembly
THE UNREST IN LOWER
CANADA
 French and English speaking merchants wanted dif ferent things for
lower Canada
 Merchants wanted to improve roads, canals and harbours
 Immigration caused problems
 Chateau Clique was encouraging immigration from great Britain
 In 1832 and immigrant ship brought a deadly disease, cholera
 The disease 5500 victims
THE ARMED REBELLION IN
UPPER AND LOWER CANADA
Lower Canada
 An a r m ed c o nf l i c t b et w een l o w er C a na da a nd t h e B r i t i s h
Co l o ni a l, p o w er o f t ha t p r o v i nc e
 T h e p o l i t i c a l l ea der w a s J o s ep h P a p i nea
 T h e Ca na di ans w er e r ea dy t o f i gh t o n N o v em b er 1 8 3 7
 B r i t i s h t r o o p s c h a r ged a nd t h e R eb el l i o ns l o s t
 T h e l a r ges t b a t t l e w a s h el d a t S t . E u s t a c h o n D ec em b er 1 4 ,
1837
 T h e R eb el l ea der , D r . J . Q . Ch eni er a l o ng w i t h r eb el s di ed
 T h e B r i t i s h r o b b ed a nd b u r ned t h ei r v i l l a ge
Upper Canada
 R eb el l i o n a ga i ns t t h e B r i t i s h c o l o ni a l go v er nm ent i n 1 8 3 7 a nd
1838
 Af t er t h e w a r o f 1 8 1 2 f a m i l y c o m p a c t o w ned m o s t l a nd
“ Cr o w n R es er v es” a nd “ P r o t es t ant Cl er gy ”
 T h e l o w er Ca na da b r o k e o u t i n a u t u mn 1 8 3 7 B o nd H ea d s ent
a l l B r i t i s h t r o o p s t o help s u p p res s i t
 S h o r t F i gh t ( l es s t h a n 3 0 m i nu t es ) t h e b a t t l e f i ni s h ed a nd
t h e r eb el f o r c es r et r ea t ed
 1 8 6 0 ’ s f o r m er r eb el s c o m p ens at ed b y t h e Ca na di an
go v er nm ent
FAMILY COMPACT
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Upper Canada has an elite called Family Compact
Was a small group of powerful people in the colony of upper Canada
Along with friends and supporters were know as Tories
Did not want Americans to be part of the government in Upper Canada
Defended tradition (The things that had always been done) and
opposed change
Believed power should be in the hands of a few capable people
(themselves)
Believed the church of England should be powerful in the colony
Were loyal to great Brittan and the British government
They had power to stop any laws passed by the legislative assembly
Most Family Compact members were British immigrants who arrived
before the 1800’s
THE REFORMERS
What did they oppose?
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Opposed the power of the Family Compact
Wanted changes in government and society of Upper Canada
Divided into moderate and radical groups
Included some radicals who later became rebels
Robert Gurley (1778 -1863) arrived in Upper Canada in 1817
His plan was to bring poor people to farm in New Britain
He sent a questionnaire famers to see hoe their progress was
He also asked them to name thing that prevented in their towns
He criticized Family Compact
AFTERMATH OF THE
REBELLION
 Upper Canada was very short and disorganized
 London government was concerned about Rebellion
 Bond Head was recalled in 1837 he was replaced with Sir
George Arthur
 Lord Durham assigned to report grievances among the
colonists and find a way to appease them
 Lord Durham’s report led to the union of Upper and Lower
Canada into the province of Canada in 1840
LORD DURHAM’S REPORT
Two Major recommendations in his report are:
1. The two colonies should become one called the United Province of
Canada
2.The United Colony should have a responsible government
 The British imperial powers(?) should be sent out in writing. All
other legal power(?)
 Would be handled by the colonies Executive council and would be
advised
 The governor stayed neutral but signed things by the executive
council
 The executive council was not picked from the government but was
chosen by leaders of other groups (legislative assembly) this is
called “Responsible government”
 Members of the executive council would stay in the council if half
of the legislative assembly supports them
Personal Information
 1792-1840
 Arrived in Quebec city as a governor general of British north
America in 1838
 Interested in education the poor
THE ACT OF UNION (1841)
 Since the Rebellion wanted a better and responsible government
British passed a law called the Act of Union
 British government acted on one of Lord Durham’s recommendations
 The act of union joined in Upper and Lower Canada as the united
province
 The two aims of the British were to control the two colonies of
Canada into one and give the English people control of the newly
named colony and to have a new colony with a responsible government
 They also established English as the official language of government
ASSIGNMENT
 Copy down the following questions:
1. What was the Act of Union and how did it help to unite the
Canada?
2. Who was Lord Durham? Why is he significant in Canadian
History? How did his report help form the identity and
culture of Canada?
3. Why was their unrest in Upper and Lower Canada? How did
this unrest lead to the Rebellions of 1837-38?
4. What was the government in Upper Canada? What was the
government in Lower Canada? Were they similar? Different?
How so?
REBELLIONS
UPPER AND LOWER CANADA
1837 & 1838
Key Events In Canadian History Which
influenced The Nation We Have Today
BACKGROUND TO THE
ISSUE
Governance in the Colony
The Governors
Land Issue
Transportation Issue
Special Privileges for a few people
GOVERNANCE
IN THE COLONY
 Colony had elected Assembly representatives
from each district
 Made plans for colony needing approval of
Governor & Councils
 Executive & Legislative Councils appointed
from ‘Upper Class’, & weren’t bound to follow
wishes of the people
 Real power was in the hand of the Governor
& Councils, the people had no REAL influence
THE GOVERNORS
British men appointed by English monarch
Unfamiliar with local issues & conditions
Depended on the advice of their councils
Usually United Empire Loyalists
They were wealthy & better educated so
better able to govern ordinary people
Anglican (church) should have ‘position’
LAND ISSUES
 Best land given to Family Compact/friends
 Exec & Leg Councilors controlled 90% of land, not
farmed, would sell for a profit
 1/7 of land went to Anglican Church, not other
religions though (clergy reserves)
 New settlers received only poor,
uncleared farmland
TRANSPORTATION ISSUES
 Farmers needed roads to get to/from
markets
 Most were impassable
 Govt. collected taxes to build canals,
mainly used to benefit merchants &
Family Compact/friends
 Farmers felt govt. did not grant land/$
to them for land/tools
 Bankers & merchants grew rich…
SPECIAL PRIVILEGES FOR A FEW
 Governor appointed all officials
 Councils, judges, sheriffs, justice of
peace
 Coroners, customs officers, postal
officials, immigration officers & Indian
Affairs officials
 As head of military he appointed 1500
officers
 Made land grants & spent crown $ for
pensions to friends
 Good jobs to Family Compact & friends
LOWER CANADA
(QUEBEC)
 Louis-Joseph Papineau led the Patriots against
the governor & the Chateau Clique, & loss of
land to growing Anglophone population
 Cultural conflict between French & English
Cdns.
 Fr. dominated the Assembly, was controlled by
the Br. Councils
 Created the 92 Resolutions
 Some wanted USA Republic system
 Fall, 1837, armed revolt failed, vs. govt. & RC
church, again in 1838
 Papineau fled to USA, then France, returned &
Pardoned in 1845
UPPER CANADA
(ONTARIO)
 William Lyon Mackenzie led the Reformers
against the Family Compact
 Did not support the Constitution Act of 1791
 Believed in responsible govt.
 Demanded 2 constitutional reforms
 Elected Legislative Council
 Executive council responsible to Assembly
 Reformers were against
 Clergy Reserves,
 Land grants to the oligarchies,
 Influence of the Church of England
 Power of the Banks
REBELLIONS OF
 Upper Canada
 William Lyon
Mackenzie
 The Reformers
 Vs. Family Compact
 Lower Canada
 Louis Joseph
Papineau
 The Patriots
 Vs. Chateau Clique
 Protesting against the Oligarchies control
 Desired a Responsible Government
 Wanted less Church control
 Assembly had to approve taxes or no
collection would occur
CONSEQUENCES OF
REBELLION
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Rebellion Losses Bill
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Led to the Durham Report of the
1840’s
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French Assimilation into English Canada
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Act of Union unites the ‘two’ Canadas

Achievement of Responsible
Government
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Led to Confederation in the 1860’s
LORD DURHAM’S REPORT
 Durham's Recommendations
 to unite Upper and Lower Canada
to make the French a minority
 to assimilate or anglicize the French
majority in Lower Canada
 to grant responsible government
 Consequences of Durham's Recommendations
 Upper and Lower Canada were united in
1840
 Responsible government was granted in
1848 leading to Confederation in 1867
 Created the roots of today’s French
‘separatism’
REBELLIONS LOSSES
BILL 1849
 Reformers controlled the Assembly,
their bill
 sought to compensate those in what had been
Lower Canada for damages that resulted from
the rebellions.
 was controversial because the Tories objected
that many of the claimants were former rebels
who were against the Crown.
 was well received by French Canadians, but
British elements opposed it so strongly
that they attacked Elgin and burned the
parliament building down in Montreal
CONFEDERATION 1867
 The Province of Canada, (Ontario & Quebec)
New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and Prince
Edward Island.
 A system based on British Parliament
 Proposed limited central government balanced
by provincial power.
 Rejected the strict application of "rep by pop.“
the senate represented regions
 Called for a two-chamber (bicameral)
parliament, including a (appointed) senate and a
(elected) house of commons.
OUR THESIS
• If in the position of the Reformers or Patriots, a
reasonable citizen would support ‘no
representation = no taxes’ since a true democracy
must have the citizen’s power move up to the
‘elected’ govt. officials, not from appointed
officials ‘down’ to the citizens.
• If every ‘democracy’ ignored their citizens and
gave special privileges to a few, rebellion and civil
war would surely follow.
• Given that the rebellions led to Confederation
1867, which spawned the nation we have today,
the rebels did the right thing and definitely
helped to create the model of democracy that
Canada represents today.
REFERENCES
 ec.europa.eu/education/img/flags/canada.gif
 www.collectionscanada.ca/obj/h2/f1/nlc006838-v6.jpg
 upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/45/Cana
da_upper_lower_map.PNG/800pxCanada_upper_lower_map.
 PNGcanadawiki.org/images/d/d5/Simcoeuppercanada.jpg
 www.cmhg.gc.ca/.../med/v2_c4_s17_ss04_01.jpg
 www.rootsweb.com/~srgp/director/gleason.jpg
 www.westminster.gov.uk/.../celebrating21.jpg
 homepages.ius.edu/raastron/Pics/farmers.jpg
 www.lbpsb.qc.ca/~history/m4u3l1.htm
 www.freewebs.com/.../whatwaslowercanada.htm
 www.joyceimages.com/images/Bank%20Royal%20Visit.JPG
BIBLIOGRAPHY
Unknown author.The Canadas. Retrieved
May 30, 2007 from the internet:
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http://www.answers.com/topic/the-canadas
Canada Revisited textbook-pages 130-174
EDITED BY:
MANISHA
BASSAN 

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