T8 Final Presentation

Report
THE EFFECTS OF
CARBON DIOXIDE,
TEMPERATURE, AND
WATER CHANGES
ON GULF
RYEGRASS (Lolium)
Sophia Chen, Madeleine Granovetter,
Michaela Hitchner, Kyle Huang, Akshay
Kadhiresan, Johnna Margalotti,
Stephanie Ren, Adeena Samoni,
Kelsey Walter
Advisor: Dr. Arun Srivastava
Assistant: Runi Patel
What is Global Climate
Change?
○ Greenhouse effect
Effects of Global Climate
Change
○
Elevated temperatures
Impact of Climate Change on
the Biosphere
The Investigation
○
How will global climate change affect the
growth of future plants?
○
Observed species:
○
○
○
Ryegrass (Lolium)
Algae
Simulated conditions:
○
○
○
Increased levels of CO2
Elevated temperature
Varied precipitation
Hypotheses
○
Increased levels of CO2
○
○
Elevated temperature
○
○
More CO2 will lead to more plant/algal growth
and productivity
Plant/algal growth and productivity will be
negatively affected at higher temperatures
Varied precipitation
○
Flood and drought conditions will hinder
plant/algal growth and productivity
Growth Density of Grass Samples
Exposed to Varying Amounts of CO2
At higher CO2 levels, density of growth decreased.
Average Height of Grass Samples
Exposed to Varying Amounts of CO2
When exposed to the greatest amount of
CO2, grass showed the most significant
growth.
Carbon Dioxide Manipulation Effects on
Biomass
Samples exposed to elevated levels of CO2
showed an increase in biomass
Spectrophotometry Readings to Measure
Chloroplast Count
Absorbance spectrums for chloroplasts in CO2
variant trays with (A) initial values and (B) final
values
Key: 400 ppm = Red; 550 ppm = Yellow; 850 ppm =
Blue
As CO2 increased to 850 ppm, there were higher
absorbance readings, indicating fewer
chloroplasts.
Color and Plasmolysis Comparison for CO2
Over time the plant’s color lightened and
plasmolysis occurred when CO2 was increased.
Fluctuations in pH Due to CO2
Manipulation
pH remained relatively stable under
conditions of elevated CO2
Effects of CO2 on Algal Growth
Increased CO2 leads to an increase in algal growth.
The higher the temperature, the less the
growth rate of the grass.
Absorbance spectrums for chloroplasts in temperature-variant trays with (A)
initial values and (B) final values; 31.6°C = Red; 29.6°C = Yellow; 32.0°C =
Blue
As the temperature decreased, there were
fewer chloroplasts.
Discussion (Temperature)
Greatest Growth
29.6 degrees
Supports
hypothesis
Poorest Growth
32 degrees
Supports
hypothesis
Most
Chloroplasts
32 degrees
Contradicts
hypothesis
Fewest
Chloroplasts
29.6 degrees
Contradicts
hypothesis
Control (31.6
degrees)
Increased
growth, but not
as much as the
lowest
temperature
Supports
hypothesis
Effects of Variable Water
Effects of Variable Water
Discussion (Water)
Greatest Growth
180 mL/day
Contradicts
hypothesis
Poorest Growth
120 mL/day
Supports hypothesis
Most Chloroplasts
Control of 120
mL/day (sharp
increase over 6
days)
Contradicts
hypothesis
Fewest Chloroplasts
180 mL/day
Contradicts
hypothesis
Control (150 mL/day)
Constant growth
Supports hypothesis
Real Life Application
○
○
○
○
Agriculture industry
Change in ecosystems
Adapt to new living conditions
Global climate change will persist into the
future and continue to be a growing issue
Acknowledgments
○ Dr.
Srivastava for his constant support,
attention, and guidance
○ Dr. Cassano and Professor Scarano for
always unlocking the greenhouse and being
there for us in times of need
○ Dr. Surace for continually checking in on us
○ Runi for her all time leadership, dedication,
care, undying love, and delicious grass cake
Acknowledgments continued
○The grass for being obedient and
reciprocating our love and passion
○NJGSS sponsors for providing us with this
wonderful and invaluable experience
○ Independent College Fund of NJ/Johnson & Johnson
○ AT&T
○ Actavis Pharmaceuticals
○ Celgene
○ Novartis
○ Bayer Healthcare
○ Laura (NJGSS ’86) and John Overdeck
○ NJGSS Alumnae and Parents of Alumnae
○ Board of Overseers, New Jersey Governor’s Schools
○ State of New Jersey
○ Drew University
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And KYLE HUANG NJGSS ‘14
Statistical Analysis: Grass Height
Control (400 ppm) versus increased CO2 (550 ppm)
H0: μ1 = μ2
Hα: μ1 > μ2
Given that μ1 is the true mean growth height for the grass treated
with 550 ppm and μ2 is the true mean growth height for the grass treated
with 400 ppm, assume that the sample is random, independent, and
normal, then run a two-sample T test.
t = -0.6634 | p = 0.7378 | df = 8.5905
x̄1 = 11.505 | x̄2 = 11.920 | Sx1 = 1.2843 | Sx2 = 0.8357
α = 0.05
The p-value, 0.7378, is far greater than the significance level of
0.05. We thus have insufficient evidence to reject the null hypothesis,
and maintain that the true average height of grass treated with 550 ppm
of CO2 is not significantly greater than that of grass treated with 400
ppm of CO2.

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