Possible Impact of Global Economic Crisis on Education In Africa

Report
POSSIBLE IMPACT OF
GLOBAL ECONOMIC
CRISIS ON EDUCATION IN
AFRICA
By
OBANYA
A THREE-PART DISCUSSION
PART
ONE
• ESSENTIAL
PRELIMINARIES
PART
TWO
• POSSIBLE DAMAGES
TO THE EDUCATION
SECTOR
PART
THREE
• OUR FORCEFUL
RESPONSE
PART ONE
ESSENTIAL PRELIMINA
RIES
AFRICA’S DEPENDENCY SYNDROME
THE STRONG SNEEZING AND THE WEAK
CATCHING A COLD
PROGRESS TOWARDS EFA (GMR 2011)
REGION
GOAL ONE
(ECCE)
GOAL
TWO(Unive
rsal Primary
Education)
GOAL
THREE
(Youth
Literacy)
GOAL FOUR GOAL FIVE
(Adult
(Gender
Literacy)
Parityprimary
education)
GOAL SIX
(TeacherPupil Ratio
–Primary
education)
44
88
89
83
0.96
25
95
100
99
1.00
14
84
87
72
0.92
22
76
71
62
0.75
45
World
Developed
Countries 79
Arab
States
19
SubSaharan
Africa
12
AFRICAN SCHOOL CHILDREN NOT EVEN
LEARNING
18
16
14
12
10
16.5
16.3
8
14
6
11.8
10.7
10
11.4
9.4
4
7.6
2
0
World
Developed
countries
Developing
countries
Arab States
aEast Asia
Latin America
Caribbean
States
N/America/W. Sub-Saharan
Europe
Africa
THE EDUCATIONEERING PROCESS
POLITICS
PRODU
CTS
PROCE
SSES
POLICI
ES
PROGR
AMMES
GOOD POLITICS IS GOOD FOR GOOD
EDUCATION
PIVOT
GOOD
BAD
POLITICS
PEOPLE-ORIENTED
NEXT GENERATION
WHAT IS IN IT FOR ME?
NEXT ELECTIONS
POLICIES
SUSTAINABLE HUMAN
DEVELOPMENT
PARTICIPATORY PROCESSES
WISHES /PRONOUNCEMENTS
OF THE RULER
INCONSISTENCY/SUMMERSAUL
TS
PROGRAMM
ES
FULFILMENT OF PEOPLEORIENTED GOALS
BASED ON STRATEGIC
DEVELOPMENT GOALS
RESOURCED
DICTATED BY PERIPHERAL
STAKEHOLDERS
LACK OF CLEAR DIRECTIONS
POORLY RESOURCED
PROCESSES PROFESSIONALLY/QUALITY
MANAGED
FOCUS ON RESULTS
NON-RESPECT FOR
PROFESSIONALISM AND SOUND
MANAGEMENT
FOCUS ON PAPER RESULTS
PRODUCTS
POOR OUTCOMES
DYSFUNCTIONAL (EDUCATION)
SYSTEMS
QUALITY OUTCOMES
SYSTEM CONTINUOUSLY
ENRICHED
ADDRESSING THE ROOT CAUSES
• THE QUALITY OF POLITICS DETERMINES
• THE QUALITY OF EDUCATION POLICIES, PROGRAMMES,
•
•
•
•
•
AND PROCESSES
AND EVENTUALLY THE PRODUCTS (OR RESULTS, OR
OUTCOMES).
IN SENDING EARLY WARNING SIGNALS
ON THE POSSIBLE EFFECTS OF THE CURRENT GLOBAL
ECONOMIC AND FINANCIAL CRISIS ON EDUCATION IN
AFRICA.
WE MUST ADDRESS ROOT CAUSES OF CHALLENGES
NOT MERELY ADDRESSING THE MERE SYMPTOMS
PART TWO
POSSIBLE
DAMAGES
TO
EDUCATION
IN AFRICA
EFFECTS ON POLITICS
Politics in General
• GLOBALISATION FORCES
FAVOURING POLITICS OF
REFORM IN AFRICA
• INTENSIFIED EXTERNAL
INTERFERENCE IN THE
POLITICS OF AFRICAN
COUNTRIES.
• SPIN-OFF IN THE
PERSISTENCE OF BAD
POLITICS
• WIPING OFF OF MODEST
DEMOCRACY GAINS
RECORDED SINCE THE
1990s
Politics of Education
• MORE OF LIP SERVICE TO
EFA
• EMPHASIS NOT ON THE
COMMON GOOD BUT ON
THE SELECTIVE GOOD
• RESOURCE SHIFT TO
DEBT SERVICING and THE
ECONOMIC SECTOR
• RESOURCE DENIAL TO
THE SOCIAL SECTOR,
WHERE EDUCATION
BELONGS
LIKELY IMPACT ON DEVELOPMENT POLICIES
NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT
POLICIES
• DECLINE IN POPULAR
PARTICIPATION IN POLICY
DEVELOPMENT
• SUBORDINATION OF
NATIONAL INTERESTS TO
THE INTERESTS OF THE
EXTERNAL DONOR.
• POLICY DICTATION
REPLACING POLICY
DEVELOPMENT
• ‘ONE-SIZE-FITS-ALL
POLICIES
EDUCATION POLICIES
• PERPETUATION OF
‘EDUCATION FOR THEM
AND NOT FOR US’.
• RESULTING FROM A
PHILOSOPHY OF
CONSULTATION
• WITH PERIPHERAL WITH
PERIPHERAL
STAKEHOLDERS
• NEGLECT OF THE CORE
STAKEHOLDERS IN
EDUCATION (next slide)
FIVE GROUPS OF EDUCATION SECTOR
STAKEHOLDERS (what distinguishes 4 and 5 from
1,2 and 3?)
GROUP FOUR
GROUP ONE
GROUP TWO
GROUP THREE
Rural Dwellers
Women Groups
Practising Teachers Education Sector
Technocrats
The Urban Poor
Youth
Organisations
Teacher
Associations
Traditional
Institutions
Organised Labour Parent-Teacher
Associations
Grassroot-Based
Organisations
Small Scale
Economic
Operators
Students
Local
Government
Agencies
Political Parties/
Religious Bodies
GROUP FIVE
Government
Agencies
Academics
Legislature
Organised Private
Sector
Education Ministries
Professional Bodies Education Sector
Parastatals
Other Government
Ministries
IMPLICATIONS FOR GOVERNMENT
PROGRAMMES
Overall national development
programmes
Education programmes in
particular
• NON-RESPONSIVE PROGRAMMES
• GREATER FOCUS ON SHORT-TERM
•
•
•
•
AND IMMEDIATE GAINS (LIKE THAT
OF A BAD POLITICIAN THAT EYES
ONLY THE NEXT ELECTION)
THREAT
TO
STRATEGIC
DEVELOPMENT PLANING
DE-EMPHASIS
ON
HUMAN
RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT.
LIKELIHOOD OF A RETURN TO THE
PORTMANTEAU
APPROACH
TO
EXTERNAL TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE
PARIS
DECLARATION
ON
AID
EFFECTIVENESS ????
• GOVERNMENT UNDERFUNDING
•
•
•
•
•
OF EDUCATION IS LIKELY TO
WORSEN
FURTHER COMMODITISATION OF
EDUCATION
DECLINE OF EXTERNAL
TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE.
AFRICA’S MARCH TOWARDS
ATTAINING THE EFA GOALS
(ALREADY UNDER THREAT) A
PIPE DREAM.
JOMTIEN AND DAKAR
ASSISTANCE PROMISES NOT
FULLY KEPT
FAST-TRACK INITIATIVE
ANYTHING BUT FAST TRACK.
IMPLICATIONS FOR THE PROCESSES OF
DELIVERING QUALITY EDUCATION
• SECTION A
QUALITY IN EDUCATION
• SECTION B
WORSENING THE QUALITY CHALLENGE IN AFRICAN
EDUCATION
QUALITY: WHAT YOU SOW IS WHAT YOU REAP
SOWING QUALITY
NURTURING QUALITY
• Politics/Policy/Manag • Institutional
ement
management
• Management
• Personnel
• Curriculum
• Physical
Infrastructure
• Teaching-Learning
facilities
• Financial Resources
REAPING QUALITY
• Cognitive learning
•
Life-coping skills
•
Teacher professional • Life-long learning
support processes
skills
• Learner psycho• Enhanced potential
social support
for contribution to
processes
society
• Teaching-learning
• ULTIMATELY, a selfprocesses
sustaining
educational system
and society
A DIFFICULT TERRAIN FOR NURTURING
QUALITY IN EDUCATION
• INSTITUTIONAL
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
MANAGEMENT
(FUNCTION NOT
PROFESSIONALISED IN MANY COUNTRIES
MINIMUM
OR
ZERO
LEVEL
OF
COMMUNITY
DEVELOPMENT
LIMITED OR ZERO AUTONOMY FOR THE SCHOOL LEVEL
MANAGER
TEACHERS (QUANTITATIVELY AND QUANTITATIVELY
DEFICIENT
LACKING PROFESSIONAL SUPPORT
ILL-MOTIVATED, OVERWORKED
LACKING SOCIAL RECOGNITION
OPPORTUNITIES FOR CAREER-LONG PROFESSIONAL
DEVELOPMENT?????
DIFFICULT TERRAIN (CONTINUED)
• TEACHING-LEARNING PROCESSES (PREVALENCE
•
•
•
•
•
•
OF ONE-WAY COMMUNICATION FRONTAL TEACHING
LARGE CLASSES
PEDAGOGICAL MATERIAL SCARCITY
TEACHING-LEARNING IN A LANGUAGE POORLY
MASTERED BY TEACHERS AND LEARNERS
PSYCHO-SOCIAL SUPPORT TO STUDENTS- LARGE
CLASSES AND EXCESS WORK LOAD, POOR
TEACHER PREPARATION
EARNER-CENTRED PEDAGOGY NIGH IMPOSSIBLE
POOR QUALITY OF INPUTS THAT SHOULD
CULTIVATE QUALITY
POSSIBLE RE-ECHO OF STRUCTURAL
ADJUSTMENT ERA FALLACIES
• TEACHER’S
•
•
•
•
•
•
QUALIFICATIONS
DO
NOT
MAKE
A
DIFFERENCE
ALL WE NEED IS A SHORT INDUCTION PROGRAMME FOR
TEACHERS FOLLOWED BY CLOSE SUPERVISION
TEACHER-PUPIL RATIO IS ALREADY TOO HIGH IN
AFRICAN COUNTRIES
MULTI-GRADE
TEACHING
AND
DOUBLE-SHIFT
SCHOOLING
HOLD
THE
MAGIC
FOR
AFRICA’S
EDUCATIONAL PROGRESS
AFRICAN GOVERNMENTS SHOULD CUT DOWN ON
EXPENDITURE ON TEACHERS’ SALARIES
TEACHERS IN AFRICAN SCHOOLS ARE ALREADY WELL
PAID, SINCE, IN MOST CASES, A TEACHER’S ANNUAL
SALARY IS HIGHER THAN GDP.
AFRICA’S PRIORITY SHOULD REMAIN BASIC EDUCATION
WHAT REPERCUSSION FOR PRODUCTS
(EDUCATIONAL OUTCOMES) ?
• IDEALLY, EFA SHOULD PRODUCE A CRITICAL
MASS OF CITIZENS WITH APPROPRIATE TYPES
AND LEVELS OF
• COGNITIVE LEARNING (FULL DEVELOPMENT OF INTELLECTUAL
POTENTIALS – HARD SKILLS-BROAD-BASED KNOWLEDGE AND
VERSATILITY)
• LIFE-COPING SKILLS (FULL DEVELOPMENT OF VARIOUS
DIMENSIONS OF EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE – SOFT SKILLS –
NEEDED FOR ADAPTATION TO CONTINUING CHANGES THAT
CHARACTERISE MODERN LIFE)
• LIFE-LONG LEARNING SKILLS (AN ABIDING THIRST FOR
CONTINUOUS SELF-IMPROVEMENT)
EFA REALITIES IN AFRICA 1
REGION
OUT-OFSCHOOL
CHILDREN
(millions)
WORLD
67.483
ARAB STATES
SUBSAHARAN
AFRICA
NET PRIMARY SURVIVAL
ENROLMENT TILL LAST
(%)
GRADE OF
PRIMARY
EDUCATION
112
93
EXPECTED
YEARS OF
SCHOOLIN
G
10.7
6.188
86
97
9.4
28.867
77
70
7.6
EFA REALITIES IN AFRICA
- 2: EFA
SCORECARD
REGION
GOAL ONE
(ECCE)
GOAL
TWO(Unive
rsal Primary
Education)
GOAL
THREE
(Youth
Literacy)
GOAL FOUR GOAL FIVE
(Adult
(Gender
Literacy)
Parityprimary
education)
GOAL SIX
(TeacherPupil Ratio
–Primary
education)
44
88
89
83
0.96
25
19
84
87
72
0.92
22
SubSaharan 12
Africa
76
71
62
0.75
45
World
Arab
States
AFRICA RAISING ITS EFA SCORE CARD?
• LEGITIMATE AMBITION WOULD HAVE BEEN TO
ACCELERATE THE PROGRESS OF EFA
• PROBABLY A FEATURE OF NATIONAL EDUCATION
POLICIES AND BUDGETS.
• BEARING IN MIND,THE MASTER-SNEEZE-SERVANTCATCH-A-COLD EFFECT ON AFRICA
• LIKELIHOOD OF DRAMATICALLY LOWERING OF
INVESTMENTS IN EDUCATION.
TURNING BACK THE HANDS OF THE
EDUCATION CLOCK
• LIKELIHOOD OF A WORSENING OF THE ALREADY POOR EFA
•
•
•
•
•
•
SCORE CARD.
CORE EDUCATION SECTOR STAKEHOLDERS AS THE
LOSERS.
PERIPHERAL STAKEHOLDERS CONTINUED FLOODING OF
PRIVATE INSTITUTIONS
IN WHICH EDUCATION TO BE GRABBED BY THE HIGHEST
BIDDER.
CAPITAL FLIGHT ALSO LIKELY TO INCREASE, ESPECIALLY
IN THE HIGHER EDUCATION SUB-SECTOR,
PERIPHERAL STAKEHOLDERS INTENSIFIED PATRONAGE
OF FOREIGN UNIVERSITIES
MOST OF THEM OFFERING ‘GOOD ENOUGH FOR AFRICA,’
TAILOR-MADE PROGRAMMES
PART THREE: WHAT SHOULD BE OUR
CONCERTED RESPONSE?
AS CITIZENS
AS UNIONS
AS TEACHERS AND
PROFESSIONAL
EDUCATORS
AS CITIZENS
• TEACHERS AND THEIR UNIONS MUST INTEGRATE CIVIL
•
•
•
•
•
SOCIETY AND CIVIL RIGHTS GROUPS
VOICING THE PEOPLE’S OPPOSITION TO GLOBALISING
AND MARKET FORCES
THAT ARE AT THE ROOT OF THE CURRENT CRISIS,
AND IN PUSHING AFRICAN GOVERNMENTS TO PLAY
GOOD POLITICS
AS A NECESSARY FIRST STEP TOWARDS PROMOTING
PEOPLE-ORIENTED POLICIES AND PROGRAMMES
MOST IMPORTANTLY, ENSURING THAT THE CRISIS DOES
NOT BECOME A REASON FOR LURING AFRICAN
COUNTRIES INTO ANOTHER EXTERNAL DEBT TRAP
AS UNIONS
• WE MUST STRENGTHEN OUR ORGANISATIONS
• PROMOTE INTERNAL DEMOCRACY
• ELIMINATE SPLINTERING AMONG TEACHER UNIONS,
• RENDER
•
•
•
•
DEVELOPMENTAL
SERVICES
TO
OUR
MEMBERS
SERVE AS MODELS OF PRUDENT RESOURCE
MANAGEMENT
OFFER LEADERSHIP BY EXAMPLE
ALL AS A FIRST STEP IN ENSURING
A STRONG VOICE FOR TEACHERS AND THEIR
UNIONS IN NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT DIALOGUES
AS TEACHERS AND PROFESSIONAL
EDUCATORS
• WE MUST PROMOTE THE CONTINUING DEVELOPMENT
•
•
•
•
•
•
OF OUR MEMBERS
TO BECOME THE PROFESSIONAL VOICE OF EDUCATION
IN POLICY DIALOGUES
CREATE A NEW WINDOW OF ACTIVITY ON RESEARCH
AND SOCIO-ECONOMIC ANALYSIS
INCLUDING THE MONITORING OF EDUCATIONAL
PROGRESS
THAT SHOULD LEAD TO TEACHERS’ UNIONS HAVING
DATA TO COUNTER ANTI-PEOPLE POLICIES
IMPROVING OUR CAPACITY TO PRESENT EVIDENCEBASED ALTERNATIVES
TO ANY MOVES THAT COULD STIFLE QUALITY PUBLIC
EDUCATION
ONE OTHER THING WE MUST DO
• TEACHERS’ ORGANISATIONS IN AFRICA WOULD DO
WELL TO UNDERTAKE
• SYSTEMATIC STUDIES OF WHERE THE MONEY
BUDGETED FOR EDUCATION GOES TO
• SEE NEXT SLIDE FOR TWO MODELS OF EDUCATION
FUNDING
SPENDING ON VERSUS INVESTING IN
EDUCATION
40
35
30
25
Series1
20
Series2
15
10
5
0
political
bureaucracy
technical
bureaucracy
teachers
salaries
infrastructure
teacher
development
pedagogy
materials
school level
funds
OUR BATTLE CRY
• ALL OUR EFFORTS MUST BE DIRECTED TOWARDS
•
•
•
•
•
•
SPREADING THE MESSAGE THAT
EDUCATION IS THE ANSWER
EDUCATION, IF GENUINELY PROMOTED (THROUGH
GOOD POLITICS-GOOD POLICIES-GOOD
PROGRAMMES-GOOD PROCESSES-GOOD
PRODUCTS PARADIGM)
IS MOST LIKELY TO RESULT IN A CRITICAL MASS OF
FULLY DEVELOPED HUMAN TALENTS
WHOSE CREATIVE THINKING
WOULD GET US OUT OF THE PRESENT CRISIS
AND PERMANENTLY SHUT THE DOOR TO ITS
FUTURE OCCURRENCE.
FINALLY
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
I THANK YOU
ALL
JE VOUS
REMERCIE
SHUK’RAN
ASANTENI
SANA
NAGODE
ESE PUPO
SIYABONGA
JEREGENJEF
ANITCHE
KEA LEBUHA
AKPEI KAKA
DALU NU
MEDAWESE

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