tia10e_ch05_ppt - Computer and Information Science

Report
Technology
in Action
Alan Evans • Kendall Martin
Mary Anne Poatsy
Tenth Edition
Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
Technology in Action
Chapter 5
System Software:
The Operating System, Utility Programs,
and File Management
Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
Chapter Topics
• Operating System Fundamentals
• What the Operating System Does
• The Boot Process: Starting Your Computer
• The Windows Interface
• Organizing Your Computer: File
Management
• Utility Programs
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2
Understanding System Software
Operating System Fundamentals
• Two basic types of software
– Application software is used to do everyday
tasks at home and work.
– System software is the set of programs that
helps run the computer
• Operating system is a group of programs that
controls how a computer system functions.
• Utility programs are small programs that perform
many general housekeeping tasks.
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3
Understanding System Software
Operating System Fundamentals (cont.)
• Categorized by type of
device in which they
are installed
– Mainframes
– Network computers
– Personal computers
– Mobile devices
– Robots
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Understanding System Software
Operating System Fundamentals (cont.)
• Operating System Fundamentals (cont.)
– Modern operating systems allow multitasking
– Windows and OS X provide networking
capabilities
– Operating systems can be categorized by
type
•
•
•
•
Robots and specialized equipment
Mainframes and network computers
Mobile devices
Personal computers
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Understanding System Software
Real-Time Operating Systems
• Used for machinery that performs a
repetitive series of specific tasks in an
exact amount of time
• Require minimal user interaction
– Car engines
– Medical devices
– Common appliances
– Robotic cameras
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Understanding System Software
Operating Systems for Networks, Servers, and Mainframes
• Multiuser operating system enables more
than one user to access the computer at
one time
• Networks require a multiuser operating
system
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Understanding System Software
Operating Systems for Networks, Servers, and Mainframes (cont.)
• Manage all user requests, ensuring they
do not interfere with each other
• Examples include Windows Server, Linux,
and UNIX
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Understanding System Software
Operating Systems for Networks, Servers, and Mainframes (cont.)
• UNIX is a….
– Multiuser, multitask operating system
– Network operating system used primarily with
mainframes
– A brand that belongs to The Open Group
– Any vendor who meets requirements can use
the UNIX name and can modify the code to
run specifically on their hardware
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Understanding System Software
Operating Systems for Mobile Devices
• Smartphones do more than let user make
and answer phone calls
• Include productivity, media player, camera
features, and Web connectivity
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Understanding System Software
Operating Systems for Mobile Devices (cont.)
• Most modern smartphones have modest
multitasking capabilities
– Check e-mail while making phone call
• Gaming systems and personal media
players require system software
developed for the device
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Understanding System Software
Operating Systems for Personal Computers
• Top three operating systems
– Windows
– Max OS X
– Linux
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Understanding System Software
Operating Systems for Personal Computers (cont.)
• Windows
– Multitasking capabilities
– Networking capabilities
– Windows 8 includes ability to use touch
commands on touch-screen monitors
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Understanding System Software
Operating Systems for Personal Computers (cont.)
• Mac OS: In 1984, first commercially
available OS to incorporate a GUI
• Mountain Lion adds features: Messages,
reminders, notes, and a notification center
• Mac OS X based on UNIX
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Understanding System Software
Operating Systems for Personal Computers (cont.)
• Linux
– Open source OS
– Personal computer and network OS
– Reputation as a stable OS
– Can be modified or updated quickly
– Available for download as distros
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Understanding System Software
Operating Systems for Personal Computers (cont.)
• Platform: Combination of an OS and
processor
• Windows and Linux run on most hardware
sold today
• Application software is OS dependent
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Understanding System Software
Operating Systems for Personal Computers (cont.)
• More than one OS can run on one
computer
– Boot Camp utility in OS X
– Parallels or VMware Fusion for Windows
– Partition hard drive in Windows
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Understanding System Software
Operating Systems for Personal Computers (cont.)
• Cloud based OS
– Prototypes are being developed
– Still need a computer, operating system, and
web browser
– Enables users to access applications and
content via the web anywhere, on any
machine, and at any time
– Google is taking steps toward developing a
complete web-based operating system
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What the Operating System Does
OS: Coordinates
and directs the
flow of data and
information
through the
computer system
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What the Operating System Does
The User Interface
• Enables user to
interact with the
computer
• Types of interfaces
– Command-driven
interface
– Menu-driven interface
– Graphical user
interface (GUI)
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What the Operating System Does
The User Interface (cont.)
• Graphical user interface (GUI)
– Used in Windows and Mac OS
– Linux: No single default GUI interface; users
choose
• GNOME
• KDE
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What the Operating System Does
Processor Management
• CPU usually is asked to perform several
tasks at once
• OS arranges for execution of all activities
• Assigns a slice of time to each activity
• Switches among processes millions of
times a second
• Appears that everything is happening
seamlessly
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What the Operating System Does
Processor Management (cont.)
• Event: Created by keystrokes, mouse
clicks, and printer and drive signals;
requires OS to respond
– Sequentially or concurrently
– OS switches back and forth
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What the Operating System Does
Processor Management (cont.)
• Interrupt: unique signal generated by the
printer
• Interrupt handler: prioritizes the requests
• Preemptive multitasking: the OS
processes tasks assigned a higher priority
before processing a task assigned a lower
priority
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What the Operating System Does
Processor Management (cont.)
• When OS receives interrupt, it suspends
current activity and creates memo in the
stack
• OS coordinates activities for peripheral
devices
– OS puts request in buffer
– Requests wait in buffer for the spooler – a
program that helps coordinate all print jobs
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What the Operating System Does
Memory and Storage Management
• OS uses RAM as a temporary storage
area for instructions and data
• Processor accesses these instructions and
data from RAM when it needs them
• OS is responsible for coordinating space
allocation in RAM
• Clears item from RAM when processor no
longer needs them
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What the Operating System Does
Virtual Memory
• RAM has limited capacity
• When RAM is full, instructions and data
are stored on the hard drive
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What the Operating System Does
Virtual Memory (cont.)
• Borrowing hard drive space is called
virtual memory
– Swap file
– Paging
– Thrashing
• Increase RAM to avoid using virtual
memory
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What the Operating System Does
Hardware and Peripheral Device Management
• Device drivers
– Facilitate communication between device and
the operating system
– Translates device’s commands into
commands the operating system can
understand
• Plug and Play (PnP)
– Hardware and software standard
– Facilitates the installation of new hardware
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What the Operating System Does
Software Application Coordination
• For programs to work, they must contain
code the CPU recognizes
• Application programming interface (API)
– Blocks of code for similar procedures
– Prevent redundancies in software code
– Make it easier for software developers
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The Boot Process:
Starting the Computer
• The boot process loads the operating
system into RAM
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The Boot Process: Starting the Computer
Step 1: Activating BIOS
• CPU activates the basic input/output
system (BIOS)
• BIOS: Program that manages the
exchange of data between the OS and all
the input and output devices attached to
the system
– Responsible for loading OS into RAM
– Stored on ROM
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The Boot Process: Starting the Computer
Step 2: Performing the Power-on Self-Test
• Power-on self test (POST): The first job
BIOS performs, ensuring essential
peripheral devices are attached and
operational
– CMOS: Complementary metal-oxide
semiconductor
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The Boot Process: Starting the Computer
Step 3: Loading the OS
• System files – the main files of the OS
• Loads OS into RAM
– Kernel is loaded
– Kernel: Essential component of the OS
• Responsible for managing the processor and all
components
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The Boot Process: Starting the Computer
Step 4: Checking Further Configurations and Customizations
• Checks registry for configuration of other
system components
– Registry – contains all the different
configurations used by the OS and other
applications
• Authentication: Verification of login name
and password
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The Boot Process: Starting the Computer
Step 4: Checking Further Configurations and Customizations
• Windows 8
• Default setting: Windows Live account free desktop and Web-based applications
from Microsoft, most of which can be
accessed from a personal home page
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The Boot Process: Starting the Computer
Handling Errors in the Boot Process
• Uninstall recently installed software
– Use uninstall program or Control Panel
• Last Known Good Configuration
• Try refreshing your computer
– New in Windows 8
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The Boot Process: Starting the Computer
Handling Errors in the Boot Process (cont.)
• Refresh your PC: New utility program in
Windows 8
– Attempts to diagnose and fix errors
– Back up PC prior to refreshing
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The Boot Process: Starting the Computer
Handling Errors in the Boot Process (cont.)
• During the boot process, BIOS can skip a
device or improperly identify it
• Device won’t respond
– Rebooting
– Check for patches
– Technical assistance
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The Windows Interface
• Windows 8
– Designed for laptops, desktops, and tablet
PCs
– Three ways to accomplish tasks
• Using a mouse
• Touching the screen
• Using keystrokes
– Start screen: the place where you begin all
computing activities
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The Windows Interface (cont.)
• Metro apps: Applications specifically
designed to run on Metro interface of
Windows 8
– Preinstalled: Photos, Messaging, and
Calendar
– Download from Windows Store
– Displayed full screen
– Controls and settings are contained in app
bars – contains controls and settings
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The Windows Interface (cont.)
• Start screen based on Windows
smartphones
– Customizable
• Charms: Special shortcuts in Windows 8
– Located on Charms bar
• Pinning: Adding Metro apps to Start
screen
– Right-click icon to remove
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The Windows Interface (cont.)
• Ways to return to Start screen in Windows 8
– Press the Windows key
– Display the Charms bar and click (or touch)
Start
– Move your cursor to the lower left corner of
screen to display Start screen icon
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The Windows Interface (cont.)
• Right-clicking lower left corner of screen
displays quick links menu
• Jump List: Most recently or commonly
used files or commands for an application
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The Windows Interface (cont.)
• Switching between programs
– Point cursor to upper left corner and drag
from left
– Drag thumbnail of previous program to middle
of screen
– Repeatedly swiping from left will scroll
backward through all open programs
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The Windows Interface (cont.)
• For a list of open programs
– Position cursor in upper left corner until
thumbnail appears
– Move cursor down to display list of
thumbnails: Switch list or press Alt + Tab
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The Windows Interface (cont.)
• Closing Metro App
– Metro apps can snap into place on left or right
side of screen
– Windows suspends Metro apps that aren’t
displayed
– Press Alt + F4 to close Metro app from within
the app
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The Windows Interface (cont.)
• Mac OS X and Windows aren’t compatible
but similar in functionality
– Programs appear in resizable windows
– Use menus and icons
– OS X uses a Dock instead of Start screen
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The Windows Interface (cont.)
• Linux: Different distros feature different
user interfaces
– Most are based on familiar Windows and OS
X paradigms
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Organizing Your Computer:
File Management
• Additional function of the operating system
is to enable file management
• Provides an organizational structure to the
computer’s contents
• Uses hierarchical directory structure
– Folders
– Libraries
– Drives
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Organizing Your Computer: File Management
Organizing Your Files
• A file is a collection of related pieces of
information stored together
• A folder is a collection of files
• A library gathers files from different
locations and displays them as if they
were all saved in a single folder
• Root directory organizes all other folders
and files
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Organizing Your Computer: File Management
Organizing Your Files (cont.)
• Windows Explorer: Main tool for finding,
viewing, and managing the contents of
computer
– Shows location and contents of every drive,
folder, and file
– Divided into two panes
• Creating folders is key to organizing files
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Organizing Your Computer: File Management
Viewing and Sorting Files and Folders
• Views button offers different ways to view
folders and files
– Details view
– Large and Extra Large
Icons view
– Search app – best way to search in Windows
8
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Organizing Your Computer: File Management
Viewing and Sorting Files and Folders
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Organizing Your Computer: File Management
Naming Files
• File name is the name you assign to the
file when you save it
– First part is similar to your first name
• In Windows, an extension, or file type,
follows the file name and a period or dot (.)
– Similar to a last name, extension identifies the
application needed to read the file
– Mac and Linus don’t require file extensions
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Organizing Your Computer: File Management
Naming Files (cont.)
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Organizing Your Computer: File Management
Naming Files (cont.)
• Each OS has its own naming conventions
• Up to 255 characters
• All files must be uniquely identified
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Organizing Your Computer: File Management
Naming Files (cont.)
• File Save Location
– Determine location of a file by its file path
– File path includes drive, folders, subfolders,
the file name, and the extension
• Path separators include a backslash (\) for
Windows, or colon (:) for Mac
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Organizing Your Computer: File Management
Naming Files (cont.)
59
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Organizing Your Computer: File Management
Working with Files
• File-management actions
– Open
– Copy
– Move
– Rename
– Delete
• Recycle Bin (Windows)
• Trash (Mac)
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Utility Programs
• Small applications that perform special
functions
• Some are incorporated into operating
system
– Firewall and file-compression utilities
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Utility Programs (cont.)
• Stand-alone utility programs offer more
features and require frequent updating
– Antivirus and security programs
– Freeware
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Utility Programs
Display Utilities
• Personalization has features to change the
appearance of your desktop
– Background
– Screen savers
– Window colors
• Vast array of downloadable options are
available on the web
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Utility Programs
The Programs and Features Utility
• Installing a new program usually runs a
wizard automatically that walks you
through installation
• Delete programs by
– Selecting the program’s own uninstall option
– Windows uninstaller utility
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Utility Programs
File Compression Utilities
• Make a large file more compact
• Easier and faster to send files over
Internet
• Windows has built-in file compression
– Take out redundancies
– Look for repeated patterns
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Utility Programs
System Maintenance Utilities
• Disk Cleanup removes unnecessary files
– Recycle Bin
– Temporary Internet files
– Offline Web pages
• If not deleted, these
files can hinder
efficient performance
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Utility Programs
System Maintenance Utilities (cont.)
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Utility Programs
System Maintenance Utilities (cont.)
• Disk Defragmenter regroups related
pieces of files on the hard disk
• FAT – file allocation table
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Utility Programs
System Maintenance Utilities (cont.)
• Error-checking checks for lost files and
fragments and physical errors on hard
drive
• Use Task Manager to check on program
that has stopped working or to exit
nonresponsive programs
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Utility Programs
System Restore and Backup Utilities
• Rolls system settings back to a specific
date before problems
– System restore point
– Made every week
– Before installing software
– Custom restore point
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Utility Programs
System Restore and Backup Utilities (cont.)
• File History utility in Windows 8 creates a
duplicate of libraries, desktop, contacts,
and favorites and copies it to another
storage device
• Backup
– Creates a copy of data on the hard drive to
another storage device
– Back up important files
– Keep backup copy in safe location
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Utility Programs
How Disk Defragmenter Utilities Work
• Disk defragmenting: Groups together
related pieces of files on the hard drive,
allowing the OS to work more efficiently
• Defragmenting tools: Files scattered over
the disk are placed together and arranged
sequentially
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Utility Programs
How Disk Defragmenter Utilities Work (cont.)
• Windows 8: Disk defragmentation is set
by default to automatically defragment the
hard drive on a regular basis.
• Macs don’t have defragmentation utility
built into the system
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Utility Programs
Accessibility Utilities
• Ease of Access Center
– Centralized location for assistive technology
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Chapter 5 Summary Questions
1. What software is included in system
software?
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Chapter 5 Summary Questions
2. What are the different kinds of operating
systems?
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Chapter 5 Summary Questions
3. What are the most common operating
systems?
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Chapter 5 Summary Questions
4. How does the operating system provide a
means for users to interact with the
computer?
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Chapter 5 Summary Questions
5. How does the operating system help
manage resources such as the processor,
memory, storage, hardware, and
peripheral devices?
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Chapter 5 Summary Questions
6. How does the operating system interact
with application software?
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Chapter 5 Summary Questions
7. How does the operating system help the
computer start up?
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Chapter 5 Summary Questions
8. What are the main features of the
Windows interface?
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Chapter 5 Summary Questions
9. How does the operating system help you
keep your computer organized?
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Chapter 5 Summary Questions
10. What utility programs are included in
system software and what do they do?
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Publishing as Prentice Hall

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