Chapter 8 A New National Identity Let’s Review 1. In 1800 Democratic Republican Jefferson became the 3rd president. 2. Because of a tie between Aaron Burr and Jefferson the 12th Amendment was added to the Constitution stating a separate ballots for President/Vice-President. I HAVE TO BEAT THE BRITISH!!! 3.Valuing a farm economy, Jefferson wanted to purchase New Orleans from France to secure river rights. Napoleon, at war with Britain, gave up his dream of ruling America and offered Louisiana territory for $15 million. 4. Jefferson sent Lewis and Clark to explore the territory. Sacagawea assisted them. 5. War between Britain and France was heating up and the United States made money selling supplies. 6. The U.S. was following the Neutrality Stay out of Proclamation (not taking sides) while France and other countries England went to war! businesses! 7. Britain seized U.S. ships and forced American soldiers to serve in their army and navies. (Impressment!) 8. Jefferson issued an Embargo that stopped all trading with foreign countries. This hurt the economy! #9 Reasons for the war of 1812: 1. British aiding Native Americans in battle. 2. Interfering with trade rights. 3. Impressment of U.S. citizens. I’m Andrew Jackson and I won the war! 10. President James Madison called for a war the U.S. was unprepared to win, however after three years of battle, The United States was victorious at the Battle of New Orleans. A New National Identity The United States shows the world its great strength after the British surrendered! Disputes had to be settled with Britain. 1. Rush-Bagot Agreement allowed both the U.S. and British Canada limited naval power so each kept their fishing rights. 2. Convention of 1818 set the border between Canada and the U.S. at the Rocky Mountains. James Monroe elected 5th President Shy and Quiet as a child • • He was a patriot and a soldier in the Revolutionary War. He was shot in the shoulder during battle. • He studied law at the College of William and Mary. • Helped arranged the Louisiana Purchase. • James Monroe was married to Elizabeth Kortright Monroe. • 2 daughters and 1 son • Said to be one of the “best me ever created.” • Known for the Monroe Doctrine • Died on July 4, 1831 at the age of 73, the last of the founding fathers. James Monroe Video • List three things you heard! We get Florida!!! • Americans wanted to settle in parts of Spanish owned Florida. Conflicts over the U.S.-Florida border and attacks from Seminole Indians began the 1st Seminole war. • In 1818 Andrew Jackson troop’s invaded Florida to capture Seminole raiders (who helped runaway slaves and invaded U.S. settlements) • Jackson overtook Spanish military posts, overthrew the government. I didn’t even ask President Monroe! Adams-Onis Treaty • Jackson’s actions upset many Spanish leaders, but Americans supported his actions. • In 1819 the Spanish government signed the Adams-Onis Treaty that gave the U.S. East Florida and the U.S. gave up claims to Texas. Trouble in the world Spain was experiencing trouble! Many Spanish colonies in the Americas were claiming independence! Revolutionary fighter Simon Bolivar a.k.a. The Liberator, led many of these struggles for independence. • Bolivar freed six nations from Spanish rule. He hoped to create a united country. Video Simon Bolivar Monroe Doctrine · North and South America should no longer be thought of as areas for European colonization!!!! · The U.S. would not interfere with European affairs, and European countries should not interfere with the affairs of any nation in the Western Hemisphere. GOALS of the Monroe Doctine: - To protect the independence of new Latin American nations. - To keep Russia from moving south into the U.S. from Alaska. Monroe Doctrine, A Live Wire (New York Herald, by permission of the New York Sun, Inc.) Nationalism • Nationalism: The feelings of pride and loyalty to a nation • Henry Clay: proposed the American System: A series of measures to make America financially strong and self-sufficient Henry Clay • Henry Clay: U.S. representative from Kentucky, a senator, the Speaker of the House and secretary of state. • • • • Supported: Nationalism Developed the American System Dedicated to preserving the Union Initiated the Missouri Compromise The American System • National bank to provide a single currencyimproved roads and canals funded by a tariff. • Some argued the improvements were not permitted in the Constitution-but Congress and Clay believed possible gains for the country justified national action. New American Roads • New Roads for trade, business and expansion • Cumberland Road-first federal road built! • Began in Maryland and into Illinois by 1850 American Canals • Americans tried to make water transportation easier by building canals. • The Erie Canal ran from Albany to Buffalo in New York allowing goods and people to move between East Coast towns The Era of Good Feelings! • Under President Monroe the USA experiences a time of peace, prosperity and progress from 1815-1825 • National Unity strengthened by 2 Supreme Court decisions that reinforced federal power. • McCulloch v. Maryland declared that implied powers of Congress allowing for the creation of a national bank. • Gibbons v. Ogden stated states could not interfere with power of Congress to regulate interstate trade. Abraham Lincoln “A house divided against itself cannot stand. I believe this government cannot endure permanently half slave and half free. I do not expect the Union to be dissolved-I do no expect the house to fall-but I do expect it will cease to be divided. It will become all one thing, or all the other. Either the opponents of slavery will arrest the further spread of it…or it’s (supporters) will push it forward till it shall become…lawful in all the states, old as well as new, North as well as South.” The Missouri Compromise Even during the Era of Good Feelings, disagreements arose. • Sectionalism: disagreements between different regions, threatened the Union (United States) • In 1819 Missouri asked to join the union as a slave state. If they added a new slave state then the balance of power in the Senate would favor Southern priorities. The Missouri Compromise To protect the power of free states, the House passed a special amendment. It declared that Missouri could enter but importing African slaves into Missouri would be illegal. The amendment also set the children of slaves free Southerner’s were MAD! The Missouri Compromise • The Amendment did not pass but Henry Clay proposed a plan in 1820. The Missouri Compromise: • Missouri could enter as a slave state. • Maine could also join the Union as a free state. • Slavery would be prohibited (forbidden) in any new states or territories north of the 36 30’ latitude. (An imaginary line was drawn) • The Compromise passed but resentment grew in the South. The Controversial Election of 1824 The Corrupt Bargain! • 4 candidates.(Jackson 99, Clay 37, Adams 84, Crawford 41) • Andrew Jackson was the popular vote ( defeating the Seminole Indians helped!) No one candidate had enough electoral votes • The House had to choose a winner so they chose John Quincy Adams. • Jackson said there were some back door deals between Senator Henry Clay and Adams. It didn’t help that Adams asked Clay to be his Secretary of State. • Adams became a unpopular, weak and a one term president. I was robbed Vs.