Storing and Managing Data in Today’s z/OS Environment Michael E. Friske Storage Challenges Compounded growth Cost reduction pressure Changing regulatory and business requirements Higher availability requirements Data life cycle management Hardware Solutions That Can Help Address These Challenges Storage Tiering – IBM DS8870 with EasyTier – EMC VMAX with FAST – HDS VSP with HDS Dynamic Tiering Virtual Tape – IBM DS7700 – EMC DLm – Oracle VSM – CA-Vtape (software/hardware) Traditional Storage Hierarchy High Performance Cache or SSD Enterprise Disk ML1 Disk ML2 Tape Low Cost Data Life Cycle Active data – Stored on primary disk Less active data – Migrate to ML1 disk – Uses MIP’s – Must be recalled to use Inactive data – Migrate to ML2 tape – Uses MIP’s – Must recall to use Primary Disk ML1 Disk ML2 Tape SMS MGMTCLAS Number of days on primary disk Number of days on ML1 volumes When to expire Management criteria – Number of days since the create date – Number of days since the last reference date Disk Options Flash Drives (100GB, 200GB, 400GB, 1.6TB, and 3.2TB) Solid State Drives (400GB) SAS Drives – 10,000 RPM (300GB, 600GB, 900GB, and 1.2TB – 15,000 RPM (146GB and 300GB) Nearline SAS Drives – 7,200 RPM (1TB, 2TB, 3TB, and 4TB) Determining What Data Went on Which Drives Disk subsystems with a mix of different types of disk drives – Analyze RMF and/or SMF reports – Map SMS storage groups to specific disk drives – Monitor for changes in access patterns A homogenous disk subsystem that works for all types of data Hardware Based Tier Management IBM DS8870 EMC VMAX HDS VSP Easy Tier Fully Automated Storage Tiering (FAST) HDS Dynamic Tiering First Generation Tiering The Disk subsystem monitored the I/O activity for each extent Extents were dynamically relocated to different tiers based on internal algorithms Shortcomings of First Generation Tiering Data is moved at the extent level, not on a data set boundary Data sets move around due to reorgs, defrags, copying, etc. Patterns of access change based on the time of day or the day of the week Data is placed on a storage tier based on access, not SLA’s Addressing the Shortcomings Hints from the host – z/OS 2.1 Class Transitions – Hitachi Tiered Storage Manager MGMTCLAS - Expiration MGMTCLAS - Migration MGMTCLAS – Class Transition MGMTCLAS – Transition Technique Easy Tier with Class Transition Enterprise $ Nearline ½$ Class transition after 120 days Recall Migrate after 366 days Transition Copy Technique FRP - FR PREFERRED FRR - FR REQUIRED STD - STANDARD PMP - FC PRESMIRPREF PMR - FC PRESMIRREQ Serialization Error Exit DB2 - Invoke DB2 to close and unallocate the object. If this is successful, the object is serialized and moved and DB2 is invoked to reopen the object. CICS - Invoke CICS to take the object offline. If this is successful, the object is serialized and moved and CICS is invoked to reopen the object. ZFS - Invoke zFS to unmount the data set. If this is successful, the data set is serialized and moved and zFS is invoked to remount the data set. EXIT - Enables users / ISVs to provide an exit that will be invoked before and after transitioning an allocated data set. The data set is only transitioned if serialization is obtained after the first invocation of the exit. NONE Transition Invokes the ACS Routines Once DFSMShsm determines that a data set has met the Class Transition criteria specified by the Management Class, it invokes the ACS routines to determine what the transition should be – ACS Routines are invoked with new ACS environment (&ACSENVIR) of SPMGCLTR, for 'space management class transition' – The following routines are invoked (in this order) » Storage Class » Management Class » Storage Group – Any or all can be transitioned If the classes and storage group returned match the existing classes and storage group, then no transition occurs STORCLAS Routine IF &ACSENVIR = 'SPMGCLTR' THEN SELECT (&STORCLAS) WHEN (‘FLASH') SET &STORCLAS = 'EASYTIER' OTHERWISE SET &STORCLAS = &STORCLAS END ELSE ... IBM MGMTCLAS Routine IF &ACSENVIR = 'SPMGCLTR' THEN SELECT (&MGMTCLAS) WHEN ('NOML2') SET &MGMTCLAS = 'ML2OK' WHEN ('DB2NEW') SET &MGMTCLAS = 'DB2AGED' OTHERWISE SET &MGMTCLAS = &MGMTCLAS END ELSE ... IBM STORGRP Routine IF &ACSENVIR = 'SPMGCLTR' THEN SELECT (&STORCLAS) WHEN (‘FLASH') SET &STORGRP = 'TIER0' WHEN ('EASYTIER') SET &STORGRP = 'TIER1' OTHERWISE SET &STORGRP = &STORGRP END ELSE ... IBM Example – New Data Set – Random reads & writes with periods of high access Flash Enterprise Initial access TIER0 STORGRP = TIER0 – Flash – Enterprise MGMTCLAS – No migration – Transition after 60 days Nearline TIER1 Example – Access Drops Off Flash Transition after 60 days – Accessed less – No write activity Enterprise TIER1 STORGRP = TIER1 – Enterprise – Nearline TIER0 Nearline Access after 3 months MGMTCLAS – Migrate after 30 days of inactivity – Expire after 7 years Example - Inactive Flash Enterprise TIER0 Recall Nearline Migrate TIER1 Virtual Tape Cost Savings Reduce CPU costs by eliminating ML1 – No need to compress or decompress data – Eliminate recalls from ML1 Reduce CPU costs with Class Transition – May be able to use FlashCopy – May be able to wait longer before migrating to ML2 Reduce the purchase price for new disk subsystems Virtual Tape Subsystems IBM TS7720 EMC DLm Oracle VSM Cost Reduction with Virtual Tape Reduces floor space requirements Reduces the need for tape handlers Replicate tape data to remote site for disaster recovery Batch cycle runs faster Tapeless tape subsystems – Eliminate the need to tape handlers – No need to buy physical tape media zEnterprise Data Compression zEDC Express is an IO adapter that does high performance industry standard compression Used by z/OS Operating System components, IBM Middleware, and ISV product Required z/OS 2.1 and EC12 or BC12 SMS Compression with zEDC Can be used in place of generic or tailored compression for QSAM and BSAM data sets CPU savings for existing users of SMS compression Disk savings for users who are not currently using SMS compression Other Features That Can Reduce HSM CPU Consuption Use RLS to access the HSM CDS’s Replace Interval Migration with On-Demand Migration Take advantage of Multiple Address Space HSM (MASH) support Implement the Common Recall Queue Implement Fast Subsequent Migration Avoid reorganizing the HSM CDS’s too frequently HOLD LOG if log data is not required RLS for HSM CDS’s Reduces CPU overhead for HSM due to less calls to GRS, less buffer invalidation, and less I/O to disk Reduces elapse times for long running tasks like Primary Space Management, Secondary Space Management, EXPIREBV, Recycle, and Audit HSM On-Demand Migration Does not check every volume each hour to see if the volume is over the high threshold Eliminates the spike in CPU usage for HSM at the top of each hour Will only process a volume once after it goes over the high threshold HSM MASH Can be used to run HSM backup and space management functions at a lower priority (different WLM Velocity Goals) Can be used to spread tasks out to more address spaces and to reduce SYSZTIOT contention HSM Common Recall Queue Allows multiple hosts to process recalls Can be used to limit tape processing on certain CPU’s Helps with workload balancing Multiple recalls for different data sets on the same tape from different CPU’s can be processed on a single CPU Allows higher priority requests across the sysplex to get process first over lower priority requests Keeps recall requests if HSM is shut down or goes down unexpectantly Fast Subsequent Migration Saves CPU costs associated with remigrating data sets that were recalled but not updated Reduces the need to run RECYCLE HSM CDS Reduction Turn on CA Reclaim for the HSM CDS’s Do not reorganize the HSM CDS’s just because they have CI and CA splits Only reorganize the HSM CDS’s to reclaim space Other Cost Avoidance Measures Clean up the errors HSM finds each night Analyze MGMTCLAS definitions periodically, and adjust them if necessary Check for data sets in the wrong MGMTCLAS Data That Can Be Used for Analysis HSM Logs HSM FSR records DCOLLECT data Questions ?