Political Reforms

Report
By: Natalie Criniti
Carlos Rivera
JonMikal Riley
 Movement of the early 1900’s based on the idea that
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government could be a tool for fixing society
Created because of an economic panic of 1893
Caused Americans to embrace Socialism
Eugene V. Debs
Created Socialist Party (1901)- goal of abolishing the
“capitalistic system”
 City Council
- hired member’s commission of experts to take over
during natural disasters
 Galveston, Texas
- the first to do so in a 1900 hurricane
 By 1917, 500 cities had followed Galveston’s ways
 The local government was not as significant as the
state governments
 Worked to stop corruption
-made own local laws
 Hazen Pingree 1890-97 (Detroit Mayor)
-Fairer Tax Structure:
lowered prices for public transportation, no
corruption, and work relief for unemployed
 Tom Johnson
-(Cleveland Ohio Mayor) worked for progressive
reform in American cities
- believed citizens should play a role in the cities
government
 Robert M. La Rolette
- served as governor of Wisconsin for three years then
became senate in 1906
- wanted companies out of politics and treat them how
the civilians are treated
-targeted the railroad industry by taxing their property
 Charles B. Aycock
- North Carolina
 James S. Hogg
-Texas
 Tried to stop child labor and protect workers
 Why were children hired?
- they were unskilled so took a lesser pay
- they had smaller hands so it was easier for them to
handle smaller tools
 Disadvantages
- many children got sick in the industrial field
- most of the family had to work because of low wages
 Labor Committee
- created to investigate child labor
 States created maximum work hours for women
 Triangle Shirtwaist Factory
- resulted in the deaths of more than 100 women
 Supreme Court
- ruled in favor of regulated work hours for women
ex: “Muller v. Oregon”
 Finally, minimum wage provisions were introduced for
women
 In some states regular citizens won state reforms.
 Citizens would create initiatives
- a bill that was create by people not by the lawmakers
 Legislature would either accept or reject it by
referendum
 The recall allowed voters to remove public officials by
making them face another election before the end of
their term
 Secret Ballot
- introduced because lack of secrecy, bribing or
blackmailing voters
- prior it was colored papers printed by political parties
 Reforms made to give voters more say
 Referendum
- allowed certain laws to be approved by the voters first
 Reform oriented investigative journalists
 Why were they hired?
- they were hired to draw attention to the problems
such as poor working conditions, poor living
conditions, and unfair business practices
 Upton Sinclair
-Novelist
 Ida M. Tarbell
- Journalist
 Jacob Riis
- Photagrapher
 Provided state assistance for mothers with young
children that did not have financial support of a male
member in the house hold
 The assistance took the form of a financial
reimbursements
 Limit the maximum hours of work for women
 Goal
- to protect and improve the living standards of
women and children
 Political Bosses are political leaders who got people to
vote for them by giving favors
 Sixteen states began using primary elections to reduce
the power of bosses and machines.
 Seventeenth Amendment
- ratified in 1913, requiring that all senators be elected
by people (instead of state legislature)
 To strengthen democracy by giving local populations
more control over the government.
 To eliminate corruption, particularly at the municipal
level.
 To protect laborers, children, and mothers with labor
regulations.

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