By: Natalie Criniti Carlos Rivera JonMikal Riley Movement of the early 1900’s based on the idea that – government could be a tool for fixing society Created because of an economic panic of 1893 Caused Americans to embrace Socialism Eugene V. Debs Created Socialist Party (1901)- goal of abolishing the “capitalistic system” City Council - hired member’s commission of experts to take over during natural disasters Galveston, Texas - the first to do so in a 1900 hurricane By 1917, 500 cities had followed Galveston’s ways The local government was not as significant as the state governments Worked to stop corruption -made own local laws Hazen Pingree 1890-97 (Detroit Mayor) -Fairer Tax Structure: lowered prices for public transportation, no corruption, and work relief for unemployed Tom Johnson -(Cleveland Ohio Mayor) worked for progressive reform in American cities - believed citizens should play a role in the cities government Robert M. La Rolette - served as governor of Wisconsin for three years then became senate in 1906 - wanted companies out of politics and treat them how the civilians are treated -targeted the railroad industry by taxing their property Charles B. Aycock - North Carolina James S. Hogg -Texas Tried to stop child labor and protect workers Why were children hired? - they were unskilled so took a lesser pay - they had smaller hands so it was easier for them to handle smaller tools Disadvantages - many children got sick in the industrial field - most of the family had to work because of low wages Labor Committee - created to investigate child labor States created maximum work hours for women Triangle Shirtwaist Factory - resulted in the deaths of more than 100 women Supreme Court - ruled in favor of regulated work hours for women ex: “Muller v. Oregon” Finally, minimum wage provisions were introduced for women In some states regular citizens won state reforms. Citizens would create initiatives - a bill that was create by people not by the lawmakers Legislature would either accept or reject it by referendum The recall allowed voters to remove public officials by making them face another election before the end of their term Secret Ballot - introduced because lack of secrecy, bribing or blackmailing voters - prior it was colored papers printed by political parties Reforms made to give voters more say Referendum - allowed certain laws to be approved by the voters first Reform oriented investigative journalists Why were they hired? - they were hired to draw attention to the problems such as poor working conditions, poor living conditions, and unfair business practices Upton Sinclair -Novelist Ida M. Tarbell - Journalist Jacob Riis - Photagrapher Provided state assistance for mothers with young children that did not have financial support of a male member in the house hold The assistance took the form of a financial reimbursements Limit the maximum hours of work for women Goal - to protect and improve the living standards of women and children Political Bosses are political leaders who got people to vote for them by giving favors Sixteen states began using primary elections to reduce the power of bosses and machines. Seventeenth Amendment - ratified in 1913, requiring that all senators be elected by people (instead of state legislature) To strengthen democracy by giving local populations more control over the government. To eliminate corruption, particularly at the municipal level. To protect laborers, children, and mothers with labor regulations.