Causes of the Industrial Revolution Agrarian Revolution • The Dutch learned ways to optimize land. Built dikes to claim land from the sea. • British farmers mixed different soils, which increased crop yield. – The seed drill by Jethro Tull put seeds in rows. Result: Better Food Production Population Explosion • • • • Great Britain from 5 to 9 million people. France from 18 to 26 million people. Europe as a whole 120 to 190 million. Cause – There was more of a decrease in death rates than a rise in birth rate. – This happened because diseases declined making for healthier children. Result: More Demand for Goods Energy Revolution • Harnessed new forms of energy. • Coal power used to develop steam power. Result: Faster Production of Goods What’s Next Industrial Revolution • Great Britain • Factors of Production – Natural Resources • Coal & Iron – Human Resources • People to mine, build factories, due to population boom. – New Technologies – Economic Conditions • Trade overseas, capital, mines, railroads, factories, large demand for goods. – Political & Social Conditions • Stable government and strong navy protected trade. Agricultural Revolution allowed the Industrial Revolution to occur. Industrial Revolution Cont… • Enclosure Movement – Fencing off land formerly shared by peasants, used as pasture land for sheep (wool). • New Technologies – Enlightenment thinkers promoted progress in technology (seed drill, larger fields, encyclopedia), however technology was an effect of the Industrial Revolution not a cause. • Better Farming Methods – Built earthen walls, dykes to reclaim land from the sea, mixed soils, better homes. Domestic System V. Factory System • The Old Way • Production done at home by individuals. • The New Way • Could produce much more due to increase in population. • Goods made by workers and machines in a factory. Power, Transportation & Communication • Water power replaced by steam power. This increased demand for coal and iron. • As factories and production increased faster and cheaper ways to move goods were needed. – Turnpikes – privately built roads. – Steam locomotive made it possible for railroad travel. – Steam boats invented by Robert Fulton went 5 miles per hour. Renewed interest in imperialism • Industrialization strengthened economies and renewed confidence in Europe. • Results – Countries needed more materials. – Wanted to expand markets. – Needs parts around the world for supplies. – Outlet for a growing population. – Nationalism and national security. Lifestyle Changes • New Social Structure – Wealthy & Middle Class lived in pleasant neighborhoods. – New urban population was very secluded and lived in slums. • No light, no sanitation, disease spread. – People migrated from farms to cities. – Huge population increase. Growth of Cities • Rapid Urbanization – Movement from farms to cities because of jobs. – There were rich nice neighborhoods, but also poor living with terrible conditions. Working Conditions in the Factories • 12 to 16 hour workdays, caused accidents. • Miners, short lives due to fumes. • Sick or injured workers were fined. • Women were expected to hold jobs and take care of the family. • Child labor needed for families to survive. – Children were accepted by factories who needed small workers. Adam Smith • Author of The Wealth of Nations. – Law of Supply and Demand • Supply affects demand – Supply increases, Demand decreases. – Supply decreases, Demand increases. – Law of Competition • Competition will increase quality decrease price. – Free Enterprise • Unregulated exchange of goods & services believed to be good for everyone, not just the rich. – Laissez-Faire “hands-off” • Felt natural progression should be allowed to happen without interference; the middle class embraced the idea. Karl Marx • Wrote The Communist Manifesto with Friederich Engels. – Class Struggle • Have V. Have Nots – Haves always owned the means of production, controlling society & wealth. – Haves were middle class. – Proletariat were the have nots or working class. Karl Marx • Haves and Have Nots continued… – Violent Revolution • Have nots fighting back against haves for their share. – Classless Society • Struggles of the past end as wealth & power is shared. – Marx believed this revolution would take place in an industrialized society first, but instead it took place in an agrarian society. Karl Marx, and governments created by his manifesto Socialism People as a whole, instead of individuals owned & operated the means of production. Utopian Socialism Goal of society should be the happiness of its people . Democratic Socialism Socialism within the democratic system – with a legislature parliamentary government that provides certain economic benefits for their citizens. Communism (Marxism) (Authoritarian Socialism) Have nots could overthrow the haves setting up a classless society where power would be shared equally. New Industrial Powers • Who caught up? – Belgium, Germany, France & the U.S. • How? – These countries had a more abundant supply of coal, iron & other resources than Britain. • Specific Examples – Russia did not industrialize because of political and social conditions. – Germany was the most industrialized by 1900. – The U.S. was most industrialized worldwide. New Technologies • Interchangeable Parts – Could be used with other products, easier to repair and assemble. • Assembly Line – Making products faster and cheaper. • Steel – Harder & more durable than iron. • Other Inventions – Aspirin, perfumes, margarine, dynamite. • Electricity – Developed in the late 1800’s. • Thomas Edison – 1st electric light bulb in the 1870’s. • 1890’s electricity took over for steam. The World becomes smaller • Railroad – Connect inland cities to seaports. • Steam Boats – Replaced sailing ships. • Automobile – Nikolaus Otto’s internal combustion engine. • Communication – Telegraph and radio. Big Business/Regulations • Large Businesses increased • Corporations – businesses owned by many investors who buy shares or stock. • This moved industries toward monopolies. • Laws put into place to prevent monopolies & regulate large corporations. • Why? – Monopolies hurt competition. Reforms • Working Conditions – Workers began to protest low wages, long hours and the fact that strikes and unions were illegal. – Germany • Unions legalized first in 1869. • Reduced workday – coal mining 8 hr. days. – Great Britain • Factory Act 1833 – 9-12 year olds no more than 8 hour work day, 17 year old no more than 12. • 1842 Miners Act – Women & Children no longer could work underground. Reforms • City Life – Improvements made: sewers, sidewalks, skyscrapers (steel allows this). – Reduced disease cut death rates. – Crime and alcoholism were a problem. – Poor were crowded creating slums. • Government – Made unions legal, and most countries made all men eligible to vote. Reforms • Rights of Women – Still fighting restrictions such as: could not vote, barred from most schools, little or no protection from law, father or husband controlled her property. – In the later 1800s women got suffrage. • The Growth of Schools – Late 1800s public schools created, included high school as education improved. – Universities expanded, but predominately attended by the wealthy. Social Darwinism • Survival of the fittest. – Applied to business and competition. – Led to Racism, claiming that the countries did well due to the white race. • Led to such ideologies as Nazism and Fascism. Romanticism • Writers, artists and composers who rebelled against Enlightenemnt lessons. – Examples: The Hunchback of Notre Dame & The Three Muskateers. – Emphasized human emotion and imagination over reason. Realism & Impressionism • Realism - Attempted to represent the world as it was, looking at the harsher side of life. – Oliver Twist: Story of nine year old orphan. – A Doll’s House: Described as a feminist novel, Nora is caught in straight jacket of social rules. • Impressionism – Creating visuals on objects in different lights, this created what appeared to be a completely different visual. – Monet, Degas led to post-impressionists Van Gogh & Gauguin.