Chapter 5 Interviewing

Report
Chapter 5
Interviewing
Systems Analysis and Design
Kendall and Kendall
Fifth Edition
Major Topics
Question format
Interviewing techniques
Recording the interview
Joint Application Design (JAD)
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Interviewing
Interviewing is an important method for
collecting data on information system
requirements
Interviews reveal information about
Interviewee opinions
Interviewee feelings
About the current state of the system
Organizational and personal goals
Informal procedures
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Planning the Interview
Five steps in planning the interview are
Reading background material
Establishing interview objectives
Deciding whom to interview
Preparing the interviewee
Deciding on question types and structure
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Question Types
There are two basic types of interview
questions:
Open-ended
Closed
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Open-Ended Questions
Open-ended interview questions allow
interviewees to respond how they wish,
and to what length they wish
Open-ended questions are appropriate
when the analyst is interested in breadth
and depth of reply
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Advantages of Open-Ended
Questions
Eight benefits of open-ended questions
Putting the interviewee at ease
Allowing the interviewer to pick up on the
interviewee's vocabulary
Reflect education, values, attitudes, and beliefs
Providing richness of detail
Revealing avenues of further questioning
that may have gone untapped
(continued)
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Advantages of Open-Ended
Questions
Benefits of open-ended questions
(continued)
More interesting for the interviewee
Allows more spontaneity
Makes phrasing easier for the interviewer
Useful if the interviewer is unprepared
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Disadvantages of Open-Ended
Questions
The five drawbacks include
May result in too much irrelevant detail
Possibly losing control of the interview
May take too much time for the amount of
useful information gained
Potentially seeming that the interviewer is
unprepared
Possibly giving the impression that the
interviewer is on a "fishing expedition”
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Closed Interview Questions
Closed interview questions limit the
number of possible responses
Closed interview questions are
appropriate for generating precise,
reliable data which is easy to analyze
The methodology is efficient, and it
requires little skill for interviewers to
administer
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Benefits of Closed Interview
Questions
Six benefits are
Saving interview time
Easily comparing interviews
Getting to the point
Keeping control of the interview
Covering a large area quickly
Getting to relevant data
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Disadvantages of Closed
Interview Questions
Four drawbacks of closed interview
questions include
Boring for the interviewee
Failure to obtain rich detail
Missing main ideas
Failing to build rapport between interviewer
and interviewee
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Bipolar Questions and Probes
Bipolar questions are those that may be
answered with a ‘yes’ or ‘no’ or ‘agree’
or ‘disagree’
Bipolar questions should be used
sparingly
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Probing Questions
Probing questions elicit more detail
about previous questions
The purpose of probing questions is
To get more meaning
To clarify
To draw out and expand on the
interviewee's point
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Question Pitfalls
Avoid leading questions, those that
imply an answer
Leading questions tend to guide
interviewees into responses apparently
desired by the interviewer
These questions should be avoided to
reduce bias and improve reliability and
validity
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Question Pitfalls
Avoid double-barreled questions, asking
two questions at once
These questions should be avoided
because interviewees may answer only
one question, leading to difficulties in
interpretation
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Question Sequencing
There are three basic ways of
structuring interviews:
Pyramid, starting with closed questions and
working toward open-ended questions
Funnel, starting with open-ended questions
and working toward closed questions
Diamond, starting with closed, moving
toward open-ended, and ending with
closed questions
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Pyramid Structure
Begins with very detailed, often closed
questions
Expands by allowing open-ended
questions and more generalized
responses
Is useful if interviewees need to be
warmed up to the topic or seem
reluctant to address the topic
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Funnel Structure
Begins with generalized, open-ended
questions
Concludes by narrowing the possible
responses using closed questions
Provides an easy, nonthreatening way
to begin an interview
Is useful when the interviewee feels
emotionally about the topic
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Diamond Structure
A diamond-shaped structure begins in a
very specific way
Then more general issues are examined
Concludes with specific questions
Is useful in keeping the interviewee's
interest and attention through a variety
of questions
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Structured and Unstructured
Interviews
A completely structured interview is
planned and the plan is strictly followed
Closed questions are the basis of
structured interviews
An unstructured interview is
conversational
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Ten Tradeoffs: Structured and
Unstructured Interviews
 Evaluation
 Amount of time
required
 Training required
 Spontaneity allowed
 Reliability
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 Flexibility
 Interviewee insight
provided
 Interviewer control
 Precision
 Breadth and depth
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Recording the Interview
Interviews can be recorded with tape
recorders or notes
Audio recording should be done with
permission and understanding
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Advantages of Audio Recording
the Interview
The four advantages are
Providing a completely accurate record of
what each person said
Freeing the interviewer to listen and
respond more rapidly
Allowing better eye contact and better
rapport
Allowing replay of the interview for other
team members
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Disadvantages of Audio
Recording the Interview
The four disadvantages are
Possibly making the interviewee nervous
and less apt to respond freely
Possibly making the interviewer less apt to
listen since it is all being recorded
Difficulty in locating important passages on
a long tape
Increasing costs of data gathering
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Advantages of Note Taking
During Interviews
Keeping the interviewer alert
Aiding recall of important questions
Helping recall of important interview
trends
Showing interviewer interest in the
interview
Demonstrating the interviewer's
preparedness
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Disadvantages of Note Taking
During Interviews
Losing vital eye contact
Losing the train of conversation
Making the interviewee hesitant to
speak when notes are being made
Causing excessive attention to facts and
too little attention to feelings and
opinions
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Before the Interview
Contact the interviewee and confirm the
interview
Dress appropriately
Arrive a little early
Affirm that you are present and ready
to begin the interview
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Beginning the Interview
Shake hands
Remind them of your name and why
you are there
Take out note pad, tape recorder
Make sure tape recorder is working
correctly
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Opening Questions
Start with pleasant conversation, openended questions
Listen closely to early responses
Look for metaphors
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During the Interview
The interview should not exceed 45
minutes to one hour
Make sure that you are understanding
what the interviewee is telling you
Ask for definitions if needed
Use probing questions
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Closing the Interview
Always ask “Is there anything else that
you would like to add?”
Summarize and provide feedback on
your impressions
Ask whom you should talk with next
Set up any future appointments
Thank them for their time and shake
hands
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Interview Report
Write as soon as possible after the
interview
Provide an initial summary, then more
detail
Review the report with the respondent
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Joint Application Design (JAD)
Joint Application Design (JAD) can
replace a series of interviews with the
user community
JAD is a technique that allows the
analyst to accomplish requirements
analysis and design the user interface
with the users in a group setting
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When to Use JAD
JAD may be used when
Users are restless and want something new
The organizational culture supports joint
problem-solving behaviors
Analysts forecast an increase in the
number of ideas using JAD
Personnel may be absent from their jobs
for the length of time required
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JAD Personnel
JAD involves
Analysts
Users
Executives
Observers
A scribe
A session leader
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Benefits of JAD
The potential benefits of using JAD are
Time is saved, compared with traditional
interviewing
Rapid development of systems
Improved user ownership of the system
Creative idea production is improved
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Drawbacks of Using JAD
Potential drawbacks of using JAD are
JAD requires a large block of time be
available for all session participants
If preparation is incomplete, the session
may not go very well
If the follow-up report is incomplete, the
session may not be successful
The organizational skills and culture may
not be conducive to a JAD session
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