Antenna Gain

Report
4th year – Electrical Engineering Department
GENERAL
CHARACTERISTICS
OF ANTENNAS
Guillaume VILLEMAUD
Antennas – G. Villemaud
0
Key Points
We have seen that the antenna theory is based on the
radiation produced by the sources (charges, currents) on
the surface of a conductor.
When we want to describe the operation of a particular
antenna, some basic features common to all types of
antennas are given:




Input impedance
Radiation pattern
Gain
Polarization
Antennas – G. Villemaud
1
Example of Datasheet
Access Point Antenna for WiFi systems
Antennas – G. Villemaud
2
Example of Datasheet (2)
Access Point Antenna for WiFi systems
Specifications
Electrical
Gain
Frequency Range
VSWR
Power
Impedance
Polarization
Front to Back Ratio
E-plane Beamwidth
H-plane Beamwidth
8.0 dBi
2300-2500 MHz
1.5:1
10 watts
50 ohms
Vertical
>25dB
60°+-5°
80°+-5°
Mechanical
Depth
Radiator Material
Reflector Material
Mounting
Windload(fatal)
Weight
Cable
Connector
1.6 inches (4.1 cm)
Brass
Brass
Integrated
208kph
0.145 kg
not supplied
SMAfemale
Antennas – G. Villemaud
3
Input impedance
If we take the example of the
open line, the distance between
the arms causes a change in
impedance.
The wave is then reflected at the
interface between the line and
the antenna, with significant
energy loss.
The goal is then to return to a
matched system.
mismatch
Zi
ei
Zr=Zc
Zc
Antennas – G. Villemaud
4
The antenna as a circuit
Pa
Pi
generator
Pe emitted power
Pr
Ze
The antenna is a resonant (stationary wave) system, it must ensure that
the impedance presented to the front line (its input impedance) is
adapted to it.
The line is in progressive wave, the power is fully transmitted to the
antenna.
The antenna is then used as an impedance transformer between the
transmission line and free space.
The radiated power depends on the accepted power and antenna
losses.
Antennas – G. Villemaud
5
Reflection Coefficient
The quality of matching of an antenna is given by its characteristic
impedance (usually 50 ohms), or by giving the reflection level.
Ze  R  jX
Reflection coefficient on power:
S11
S11
2
Pr

Pi
is the reflection coefficient on voltage
Input impedance deduced from reflection values:
1  S11
Ze  Zc.
1  S11
Antennas – G. Villemaud
6
Expression in decibels
Most of the time the values are expressed in decibels:
S11 dB  20 log S11
return loss
But we can also found the use of VSWR (Voltage Standing Wave Ratio):
VSWR 
1  S11
1  S11
Often expressed with the form: n:1
Antennas – G. Villemaud
7
Conversions
VSWR
Return Loss (dB)
Reflected Power (%) Transmiss. Loss (dB) VSWR
Return Loss (dB)
1.00
∞
0.000
0.000
1.38
15.9
2.55
0.112
1.01
46.1
0.005
0.0002
1.39
15.7
2.67
0.118
1.02
40.1
0.010
0.0005
1.40
15.55
2.78
0.122
1.03
36.6
0.022
0.0011
1.41
15.38
2.90
0.126
1.04
34.1
0.040
0.0018
1.42
15.2
3.03
0.132
1.05
32.3
0.060
0.0028
1.43
15.03
3.14
0.137
1.06
30.7
0.082
0.0039
1.44
14.88
3.28
0.142
1.07
29.4
0.116
0.0051
1.45
14.7
3.38
0.147
1.08
28.3
0.144
0.0066
1.46
14.6
3.50
0.152
1.09
27.3
0.184
0.0083
1.47
14.45
3.62
0.157
1.10
26.4
0.228
0.0100
1.48
14.3
3.74
0.164
1.11
25.6
0.276
0.0118
1.49
14.16
3.87
0.172
1.12
24.9
0.324
0.0139
1.50
14.0
4.00
0.18
1.13
24.3
0.375
0.0160
1.55
13.3
4.8
0.21
1.14
23.7
0.426
0.0185
1.60
12.6
5.5
0.24
1.15
23.1
0.488
0.0205
1.65
12.2
6.2
0.27
1.16
22.6
0.550
0.0235
1.70
11.7
6.8
0.31
Antennas – G. Villemaud
8
Reflected Power (%) Transmiss. Loss (dB)
Radiation resistance
Ze  R  jX
Radiation resistance and loss resistance
For purely metallic antennas,
the loss resistance could be
neglected.
For a purely resitive antenna
(accorded antenna), X=0
Antennas – G. Villemaud
9
Bandwidth
There are many definitions of bandwidths. The most common is
the bandwidth in impedance matching where the reflection
coefficient of the antenna meets a certain level.
Antennas – G. Villemaud
10
Relation to the impedance
The complex impedance of an antenna varies with
frequency. It corresponds to variations in current
distribution on the surface.
We try to match the Z(f) = R(f) + j X(f)
operating frequency
with a purely real
résonance
Serial
impedance similar to
série
resonance
that of system (usually
50 ohms).
X(f)
R(f)
f
Parallel
mode
resonance
fondamental
Antennas – G. Villemaud
11
Serial or parallel resonances
The geometry of the antenna and its feeding mode affects the
impedance. We usually try to place as close to resonance and
cancel the imaginary part.
Antenna
Serial resonance
Max of current at the
generator
Low impedance
Parallel resonance
Min of current at the
generator
High impedance
Antennas – G. Villemaud
12
Examples of matching points
Z,
60
W
Matching zone
Example of the dipole
case n°1
40
20
Re(Z)
0
i
I m(Z)
-20
-40
0,2
Z,
0,4
0,6
0,8
1
1,2
1,4
1,6
1,8
f
fr
W
120
case n°2
v
100
80
I m(Z)
60
40
20
Re(Z)
0
-20
0,2
Z,
450
0,4
0,6
0,8
1
1,2
1,4
1,6
1,8
f
fr
W
case n°3
350
250
Re(Z)
150
The choice of the feeding point can
determine the bandwidth;
I m(Z)
50
-50
-150
0,2
0,4
0,6
0,8
1
1,2
1,4
1,6
1,8
f
fr
Antennas – G. Villemaud
13
Mutual Coupling
Two closely spaced antennas influence each other by a
coupling of electromagnetic fields.
This coupling must be taken into account because it
changes the antenna characteristics (impedance and
radiation).
Rapid limitation of analytical models
Electromagnetic modeling
Antennas – G. Villemaud
14
Radiation characteristics
To account for the performance of the antenna from the
point of view of the radiated fields are used:
The characteristic function (field pattern)
The radiation pattern
The directivity
The gain
The beamwidth
The effective area
And therefore to build the link between two antennas
we will use the link budget (Friis’ formula)
Antennas – G. Villemaud
15
Characteristic function
The characteristic function is used to represent changes in
the level of the radiated field in the far field zone as a
function of the direction considered.
Case of the Hertzian dipole:

E ( ) 
 I  dl  sin   e j (t  r )
2r 
I : max. intensity
60
E ( ) 
 I  dl  sin 
r
60 I dl
E ( ) 

sin 
r

j
F ( )
Characteristic function of the hertzian dipole
Antennas – G. Villemaud
16
Radiation Pattern
Global definition:
z

r
F ( ,  ) 
 E  ,  
60 I
y
Hertzian dipole

x
Vertical plane
Antennas – G. Villemaud
x
Horizontal plane
17
Power Notion
The total radiated power is equal to the flow of the Poynting
vector through a closed surface surrounding the antenna.
 
P   P.dS
sphere
In farfield, it comes:
2
E
P
2
Surface power density
To represent this a normalized power is often used:
Pn, 
P, 
Pmax
Antennas – G. Villemaud
18
Solid Angle
The power flow density can also be
expressed in steric density
according to the solid angle
dW
dW 1 dS sindd
r2
2
15
2
Pe I  F , dW

W
PeU , dW
W
U  ,   
15I 2

F 2  ,  
Watt / steradian
Steric power density or radiation intensity
Antennas – G. Villemaud
19
Radiation resistance
When we link between the radiated power and the power dissipated
by a load, we can determine the radiation resistance from the
characteristic function.
2
15
2
Pe I  F , dW

W
 F , dW
Rr  30

2
W
Antennas – G. Villemaud
20
Antenna Directivity
Pe is the total radiated power, it is said that the antenna is
isotropic when the steric density in any given direction is
expressed as:
U  ,  Pe
4
We call directivity the relationship between power density
created in a given direction and the power density of an
isotropic antenna.
U  , 
D , 
Pe
4
Antennas – G. Villemaud
21
Meaning of the directivity
F 0,0 
D0,0 
1 F 2, dW
4 W
2
For isotropic antenna, D=1
whatever the direction
Antennas – G. Villemaud
22
Antenna Gain
The gain is defined in the same way as the directivity, but taking into
account of the power supplied to the antenna:
U  , 
G , 
Pf
4
This gain is sometimes called actual or realized gain as opposed to
intrinsic gain not taking into account all the losses of the antenna
(without loss of mismatching).
Gintrinsic 
If there is no loss, the gain is
equal to the directivity
Grealized
1  S11
2
F 20,0 
G0,0 4 
2 , dW
F

W
Antennas – G. Villemaud
23
Relation to the resistance
Starting from:
F 20,0 
G0,0 4 
2 , dW
F

W
We can give a simple formula to calculate the gain function form the
radiation resistance :
120F
G
o,o 
2
Rr
Still in the no matching loss hypothesis
Antennas – G. Villemaud
24
Radiation pattern teminology
Half-power beamwidth(-3dB)
Axis of the main lobe
Zero of radiation
1
Secondary lobes
(sidelobes)
0,8
0,6
0,4
Antennas – G. Villemaud
25
Types of representation
There are a multitude of ways to represent the
radiation of an antenna: field pattern, power pattern,
gain, directivity, polar or Cartesian, linear or decibels,
2D or 3D
Antennas – G. Villemaud
26
Example of microwave bridge
Radiation pattern
Linear radiation pattern (P/Pmax)
1
0
0.8
-20
0.6
P
G (dBi)
20
-40
0.4
-60
0.2
-80
-200
-100
0
angle (°)
100
200
0
-200
-100
90
120
120
30
180
330
240
200
60
150
0
210
100
90
60
150
0
angle (°)
30
180
0
210
300
270
330
240
300
270
Antennas – G. Villemaud
27
Reference planes
Z

Excited
mode: :TM10
Mode excité

H
E
H
H plane
Plan
H


E plane
Plan
E

Radiating element

Courants
d e surface
liés
la cross-polarization:
po larisation croisée:
Surface
currents
linked
to àthe
Jx Jy
Courants
surface liés
à la polarisation
principale:Jx
Surfacedecurrents
linked
to the main
polarization: Jy
Antennas – G. Villemaud
28
Measurement methods
Vector Network ananlyzer
Impedance matching
measurements
Antenna under test
TA
Horn
RF out
motion
motion
motion
Motion control
Directional coupler
VNA
Radiation measurements
Computer
Antennas – G. Villemaud
29
Measurement chambers
Antennas – G. Villemaud
30
Measurement chambers
Antennas – G. Villemaud
31
EIRP
When an antenna produces a radiated power Pe, the
power density created in a given direction is the product of
the gain in this direction by the power.
The Equivalent Isotropic Radiated Power is:
EIRP=Pe.Ge
This value is particularly usefull for standard’s definition.
Antennas – G. Villemaud
32
Effective area
An antenna illuminated by a plane wave of power
density Ps, we call effective area of the antenna
quantity:
load
S,  Pd
Ps
From the gain :
G ,  Ps
Pf
4r
Antennas – G. Villemaud
33
Effective area and gain
If we build a transmission between two antennas:
Pf
Pd
load
antenna 1
antenna 2
Pd S2 G1 S1 G2
Pf
4r 2
4r 2
Reciprocity :
Then:
G1  G2
S1 S2
If we take the hertzian dipole as
example, it comes:
Antennas – G. Villemaud
S,   GA, 
4
2
34
Link Budget
Friis’ formula or link budget is used to calculate the power
available at the receiver load depending on the power
supplied to the emitting antenna.
We know
Pr S2 G1
Pe
4r 2
 

S2 G2
4
2
or
2
Pr  
Ge, Gr, Pe
4r
Antennas – G. Villemaud
35
More detailed budget link
The previous formula assumes matched loads and the
same antenna polarization. Otherwise, a more complete
budget can be made:
  F G , F G , P .
Pd  
4r
2
A
e
B
r
f
p
It takes into account the impedance matching of antennas,
their gains in the direction of communication and
polarization efficiency.
Antennas – G. Villemaud
36
Decibel expressions
An expression given in decibels is always relative, so a value relative
to a multiplication or a division in the linear domain.
As we are expressing power values, we always use 10log (ratio).
This is still consistent with calculations with the field values in 20log.
To express absolute values like power level, we use a
reference value, which could be 1 mW (dBm) or 1 W (dBW).
Directivities or gains are expressed in dBi (relative to isotropic)
or dBd (relative to dipole).
Attenuation or amplification terms are expressed in pure dB.
Antennas – G. Villemaud
37

similar documents