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Report
GLOBODERA ELLINGTONAE:
A NEW POTATO CYST NEMATODE SPECIES
INGA A. ZASADA AND WENDY PHILLIPS
USDA-ARS HORTICULTURAL CROPS RESEARCH LABORATORY, CORVALLIS, OR
RUSSELL E. INGHAM
OREGON STATE UNIVERSITY, CORVALLIS, OR
Outline
Globodera in the United States
 Discovery of Globodera ellingtonae in the
United States
 What we know about G. ellingtonae
 Conclusions

Globodera in the United States

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PCN are considered quarantine pests for the U.S. as they
can cause severe economic damage to host crops if
uncontrolled
1932 – G. rostochiensis found in New York; confined to this
area as a result of regulatory and management practices
2006 - a sample comprised of tare dirt from a grading
station in Blackfoot, ID was determined to contain G. pallida
2008 – three nematode samples distinct from known PCN
species were found in Oregon and Idaho
2013 - 19 G. pallida-infested field have been identified in
Idaho
Globodera spp.


Elevated to a subgenus in 1959 (Skarbilovich) and genus in
1975 (Behrens)
Recognized species:


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






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G. achilleae 1973 (yarrow)
G. artemisiae 1972 (artemisia)
G. chaubattia 1984 (apple)
G. ellingtonae 2012
G. hypolysi 1983
G. leptonepia 1953 (solanaceous plants)
G. mexicana 1967 (tomato, black nightshade)
G. millefolii 1965
G. mirabilis 1971
G. pallida 1973 (potato, tomato, solanaceous weed)
G. psudorostochiensis 1963
G. rostochiensis 1923 (potato, tomato, solanaceous weed)
G. tabacum complex1954 -1972 (solanaceous plants)
G. zelandica 1984 (tree fuschia)
Globodera spp. lifecycle
Contains
400-500
eggs
Diapause
Hatching factor
J1
Narrow host
range
Males are need for
reproduction in most
species
Syncytium formed
“transfer cell”
Some images from mactode.com
“Ultimate in evolutionary specialization”
Globodera ellingtonae discovery

2008 – three nematode samples distinct from known PCN species
were found in Oregon and Idaho




Oregon Department of Agriculture processed samples from Powell Butte,
OR, 6 cysts were found
In Idaho cysts were found in 2 fields (Caribou and Teton Counties, Idaho)
for a total of 4 cysts
All cysts sent to USDA-ARS Nematology Laboratory for identification
2010 – USDA-ARS and Oregon State University demonstrate that
potato and tomato are hosts for this Globodera (Skantar et al.,
2011)

OSU voluntarily closes Powell Butte research facility
Map of OSU
Powell Butte Farm
Globodera ellingtonae discovery

2012 – described as a new species
by Handoo et al.

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Morphologically G. ellingtonae
differs from other Globodera by its
distinctive J2 tail and by one or
more differences in stylet length,
cuticular ridges, spicules, etc…
Based upon ITS sequence data G.
ellingtonae is distinct from G.
pallida, G. rostochiensis, G. tabacum,
and G. mexicana
Multiplex RT-PCR used for detection
of G. rostochiensis, G. pallida, and
G. tabucum resulted in no false
positive detections involving G.
ellingtonae
Handoo et al. (2012)
G. ellingtonae
Globodera ellingtonae discovery
What we know - hatching
Hatch of Globodera ellingtonae Over Time in Root Exudates
250
2-week hatch in exudate
After transfer to PRD
150
100
50
Oa
ts
Wh
Ye
ea
llow
t
Mu
s ta
rd
Ca
no
la
te r
Po
ta t
o
To
ma
La
to
mb
sq
ua
rte
Ha
r
iry
Ve
tc h
Pig
we
ed
0
Wa
Juvenile hatch/cyst
200
% hatch relative to total hatch over time
Hatch of Globodera ellingtonae in Root Exudates
100
80
60
*
40
20
Potato root exudate
Tomato root exudate
0
0
5
10
15
Day
Roy Navarre (USDA-ARS) – Zasada et al. (2013)
20
25
What we know – potato hosts
Host Status of Potato Varieties to Globodera ellingtonae
70
a
P < 0.05
b
b
40
30
Trial 1
Trial 2
A
50
B
20
c
B
c
BC
C
Cd
10
D e D e De
ire
e
Bu
rba
nk
Um
a ti
lla
Mo
do
c
No
rla
nd
Yu
ko
Ma
n
ris
Pip
er
Atl
an
ti c
Se
ti n
a
0
De
s
Reproduction factor
60
Potato Variety
All Ro1
resistant
What we know – host range
Host status of other Solanaceous crops
Jalapeno
Bell pepper
Tomatillo
Eggplant
Desiree
0
10
20
30
40
Reproduction factor (Pf/Pi)
50
Host status of rotation crops grown at Powell
Buttte
Trial 2
Alfalfa
Trial 1
Barley
Oats
Tomato
0
2
4
6
Reproduction factor (Pf/Pi)
8
What we know - biology
Population dynamics of G. ellingtonae life stages in soil
on potato
What we know - pathogenicity
2012 - Inoculated potato ‘Russet
Burbank’ with 0, 5, 10, 20, 40
eggs/g soil
2013 – Inoculated potato “Russet
Burbank’ and ‘Desiree’ with 0, 5,
10, 20, 40, 80 eggs/g soil
Desiree Results
Pathogenicity – Desiree 2013
Effect of Globodera ellingtonae on
Potato Aboveground Biomass at Harvest
Desiree
No significant differences
Effect of Globodera ellingtonae
on Total Tuber Weight
Desiree
No significant differences
Russet Burbank Results
Pathogenicity – Burbank 2012
Total Yield of Potato 'Russet Burbank' Inoculated
with Different Initial Egg Densities of Globodera ellingtonae
no difference; P > 0.05
1200
1000
800
600
400
200
eg
gs
/g
40
eg
gs
/g
20
eg
gs
/g
10
gg
s /g
5e
es
ted
0
Un
inf
Tuber yield (g/plant)
1400
Initial egg density (in 3000 g soil)
Pathogenicity – Burbank 2013
Effect of Globodera ellingtonae on
Potato Aboveground Biomass at Harvest
Russet Burbank
No significant differences
Effect of Globodera ellingtonae
on Total Tuber Weight
Russet Burbank
A
Differences significant at P = 0.06
A
A
AB
AB
B
Yield (mt/ha)
Effect of G. pallida on yield of a
moderately intolerant potato cultivar
Initial Population Density (eggs/g soil)
Trudgill and Phillips
Conclusions
1. Biological data supports the morphological and
molecular conclusion that G. ellingtonae is a distinct
species from G. pallida and G. rostochiensis
2. G. ellingtonae appears to be more closely related to
G. rostochiensis
3. It is still not clear to what extent G. ellingtonae is a
pathogen of potato – this nematode is not regulated!!
4. Future research will include: expanded host range,
continued molecular characterization, and identification
of ways to manage this new nematode species
Acknowledgements
USDA-ARS
Roy Navarre
Chuck Brown
Xiaohong Wang
Rich Novy
Jonathan Whitworth
Oregon State University
Nadine Wade
Solomon Yilma
Dee Denver
Zasada USDA-ARS Lab
Amy Peetz
Duncan Kroese
Mariella Ballato
Amanda Howland
University of Idaho
Louise-Marie
Dandurand
Joe Kuhl
Funding
Oregon Potato Commission
USDA-APHIS
USDA-ARS

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