Title

Report
Peter Craufurd
The University of Reading
Strategies for reducing aflatoxin levels in
groundnut-based foods and feeds in India:
A step towards improving health of humans
and livestock
Funded by Department for International Development (DFID):
Crop Protection Programme (CPP) / Crop Post-Harvest
Programme (CPHP)
Project Partners
• ANGRAU, Anantapur
• STAAD, Hyderabad
• AME, Bangalore
• ICRISAT
• University of Belfast, UK
• University of Reading, UK
Project started July 2000
Project Objectives
• Six objectives
1.
Describe pre- and post-harvest groundnut
production and processing practices of farmers
and processors
Find out if stakeholders are aware of aflatoxin
[2000/01]
Output 1: groundnut production & processing
practices
Visits/ interviews/ case studies with:
• farmers in:
- 4 villages in Anantapur District
- 2 villages in Pileru, Chittoor District
• in market yards and with traders & processors in
Anantapur & Pileru
Output 1: groundnut production & processing
practices
Major outcomes
• there are socio-economic/ livelihood factors
affecting adoption aflatoxin reducing technologies
• there are no incentives to produce aflatoxin-free
produce
• there is no awareness of aflatoxin by farmers or
processors
Project Objectives
2.
Survey of aflatoxin contamination in groundnut:
pods & haulms at harvest & during storage;
groundnut-derived confectionary products; and
milk [2000/01]
Develop molecular tools to characterise
toxigenic and non-toxigenic strains of
Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus [2001]
Output 2: Survey of aflatoxin contamination
Farmers’ fields in Anantapur
Year
No.
fields
% Samples
> permissible
limit 10 ug/ kg
% Samples
>100 ug/ kg
2000
126
26
17
2001
96
31
8
Output 2: Survey of aflatoxin contamination
Milk & traders/ millers in 2000/02
No. samples
% Samples
> permissible limit
% Samples
> 100 ug/ kg
Raw buffalo
milk
352
53
0
Raw cow
milk
50
34
0
Groundnut
fodder
80
30
3
Traders
229
30
14
Oil millers
223
25
7
Output 2: Survey of aflatoxin contamination
Market samples in 2002
Crop
No. samples
% Samples >
permissible limit
(10 ug/kg)
% Samples
> 100 ug/ kg
Maize
72
43
7
Sorghum seed
8
0
0
Soyabean cake
19
89
0
Groundnut cake
7
100
71
Groundnut seed
25
28
7
Cotton cake
6
100
0
Project Objectives
3.
Determine factors affecting aflatoxin
contamination: pre-harvest in farmer’s fields
through harvesting, drying, stacking and storage
by farmers and traders/ processors, i.e. follow
the chain of infection & contamination [2001/02]
Output 3: factors affecting contamination
Two factors are needed for aflatoxin contamination:
• Infection of pods and kernels (seeds) with
Aspergillus flavus
and
• Favourable conditions for the production of
aflatoxin by A. flavus
Output 3: factors favouring infection &
contamination
Fungus, A. flavus
Aflatoxin production
• high relative humidity
• soil or air temperature c. 30oC
• temperature 25-35oC
• >25d drought at end of
season
• kernel (seed) moisture
content 10-30%
• many damaged pods
• kernel moisture content 1030%
NOTE: undamaged pods can be infected and contaminated
Output 3: when can infection & contamination
occur?
At all stages from start of pod production in the field
through storage and processing to consumption
Pre-harvest when pods
are growing
At harvesting
During drying of haulms/pods in the field
Text
In the stack, and subsequent storage
Text
Factors affecting aflatoxin contamination
Abiotic
•
Soil temperature
Drought
Air temperature
Relative humidity
Biotic
A. flavus
A. flavus
Crop
Kernel moisture
No. damaged pods
Kernel moisture
No. damaged pods
Sow
Flower
Harv.
Field
drying
Field/ yard
stacks
TIME
Storage
Project Objectives
4.
Produce a short-list of ‘technology’ options to
reduce aflatoxin contamination based on the
findings of Project Outputs 1, 2 & 3 [2002]
• to be discussed in Session II
Output 4: technology options
Pre-harvest
• genetic (variety) tolerance/resistance to infection
and/or contamination
• biological control of A. flavus
• agronomic practices that improve soil water retention
and reduce the effect of drought and high soil
temperature during pod growth
Output 4: technology options
Post-harvest
• rapid drying of pods/ kernels to <10% moisture
content
• removal all damaged or mouldy pods
• store pods in conditions unfavourable to infection
& contamination: dry, well aerated, insect-free
Project Objectives
5.
Discuss ‘short-list’ (Output 4) with farmers, and
validate on-station and on-farm in partnership
with farmers and extension agencies [2002]
• to be discussed in Session II
Project Objectives
6.
Identify target institutions and partnerships to
promote public awareness of aflatoxin, and to
develop and advocate strategies and policies
that enable the production of aflatoxin-free
groundnut
• to be discussed in Session II
Thank you
• Donors:
DFID Crop Protection Programme
DFID Crop Post-Harvest Programme
• Hosts:
ICRISAT
• All those who have helped the research programme
• Participants at today’s meeting for their time

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