Dietary Guidelines

Report
Dietary Guidelines
for a Healthy Diet
Ciara Rooney
Nutrition & Metabolism Group
Centre for Public Health, QUB
Introduction
• A healthy diet is important for overall health
• The amount and types of food eaten has a
major influence on health
• Hence, nutritional/dietary intake guidelines
have been devised
Nutritional Requirements
• The amount of each nutrient needed is called
a nutritional requirement
• Nutritional requirements vary
between individuals and life stages
Nutritional Requirements
Requirements differ
for
pregnant/lactating
women
Energy requirements
lower than during
adolescence
Energy requirements
continue to decrease
after 50 yrs in
females & 60 yrs in
men
Nutrient density
even more important
in adulthood
ADULTS
19 + years
Requirements for
protein, vitamins &
minerals mostly
unchanged from
adolescence
Recommended that
older adults take
10µg/day vitamin D
supplement
But few exceptions
including iron
Nutritional Requirements
Nutrient Requirements
Macronutrient
Dietary Reference Value
Total fat
Population average no more than 35% food
energy
Saturated fatty acids
Population average no more than 11% food
energy
Trans fatty acids
Populations average no more than 2% food
energy
Total carbohydrate
Populations average no more than 50% food
energy
Non-milk extrinsic sugars
(NMES) [added sugars]
Population average no more than 11% food
energy
Non-starch polysaccharides
(NSP) [fibre]
Adult population average at least 18g/day
Salt
Adult population average no more than 6g/day
Putting this Information into Practice
Guide for reading
labels …
Source:
http://www.nhs.uk/Livewell/
Goodfood/Pages/foodlabelling.aspx
High
Low
Total Fat
17.5g or more per 100g
3g or less per 100g
Saturated Fat
5g or more per 100g
1.5g or less per 100g
Sugars
22.5g per 100g
5g or less per 100g
Salt
1.5g per 100g
0.3g or less per 100g
The Eatwell Plate
Fruit and Vegetables
• What counts?: fresh, frozen, dried fruits & veg
• Eat plenty (should make up one third of daily
food intake)
• Eat five 80 g portions per day
• One portion: 1 apple, 3 tbsp
peas, 2 small oranges etc…
• Eat a variety
• Why?: vitamins,
minerals, fibre
Starchy Carbohydrates
• What counts?: rice, bread, pasta etc
• Eat plenty (should make up one third of daily
food intake)
• Aim for at least one food from this group at
each meal
• Choose wholegrain varieties
if possible
• Why?: carbohydrates, fibre,
some calcium, some iron, B
vitamins, folate
Meat, Fish & Alternatives
•
•
•
•
•
What counts?: meat, poultry, fish, eggs, beans etc
Eat moderate amounts
Aim to eat two portions (140 g) oily fish/week
No limit for eggs – eat in moderation
Why?: protein, iron, B vitamins
(especially vitamin B12),
vitamin D, magnesium,
omega-3 fatty acids
Milk and Dairy Foods
•
•
•
•
What counts?: Milk, yogurt, cheese, fromage frais
Does not include: butter, eggs and cream
Eat moderate amounts
Serving = 200ml of milk, 150g pot of yogurt,
30g (matchbox size) cheese
• Why?: Calcium, protein,
vitamins B12, B2 and A, zinc,
potassium
Fats and Sugars
• What counts?: cakes, crisps, butter, cream etc
• Eat sparingly
• Some fat essential, but foods with fat can be
high in calories
• Two essential fats – omega-3 and
omega-6 fatty acids
• Sugar adds sweetness to foods, but
associated with tooth decay
Current Population Dietary Intakes
NMES (sugar):
intakes exceeded
requirements for
all age groups
Vitamins:
from food were
close to/above
requirements
Saturated fat :
exceeded requirements
(19-64 years)
Minerals:
below requirements in
some
age groups (particularly
11-18 year olds)
Top Tips for Achieving Dietary
Guidelines
• Base food choice on eatwell plate
• Remember: balance
• Check food labels when shopping
• Reduce salt intake
• Get active and be a healthy weight
Websites with more information
on this topic:
www.nutrition.org.uk
www.nhs.uk/livewell

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