THE BEHAVIOURAL APPROACH Or Everything opposed to Freud JB Watson (1878-1958) ‘Father of Behaviourism’ “Give me a dozen healthy infants, I’ll guarantee to take any one at random and train him to become a doctor, lawyer, artist, beggar or thief” THE ROLE OF THE ENVIRONMENT Tabula Rasa Environmental determinism THE IMPORTANCE OF OBSERVABLE EVENTS IN RESEARCH This approach is primarily concerned with observable behaviour (measurable behaviour) Stimulus-Response relationships. E.g.: you burn your hand on a stove, and therefore do not touch the stove again. Classical Conditioning CLASSICAL CONDITIONING This is learning through ASSOCIATION To remember this think ASS! … clASSical conditioning … ASSociation No response Neutral Stimulus (NS) Unconditioned Response (UCR) Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS) Conditioning Conditioned Stimulus (CS) Conditioned Response (CR) LITTLE ALBERT http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0FKZAYt77ZM Complete the table on pg 8, explaining the process of the Classical Conditioning of Little Albert. Include these terms: rat, striking hammer, fear, unconditioned stimulus (UCS), unconditioned response (UCR), conditioned response (CR),conditioned stimulus (CS), neutral stimulus (NS). Work it out.... A child is afraid of spiders. One day he is in a lift and notices a spider. Now he is afraid of lifts. Neutral stimulus (NS)? Unconditioned stimulus (UCS)? Unconditioned response (UCR)? Conditioned stimulus (CS)? Conditioned response(CR)? And another, try this one on your own Many years ago, as a child, Rick used to visit a dentist who thought that anaesthetic was just for sissies. The dentist had a grandfather clock in the waiting room. Years later, Rick still feels uneasy and a little anxious whenever he hears the tick of a grandfather clock. Suggest the NS, UCS, CS, UCR and CR in this scenario. Operant Conditioning OPERANT CONDITIONING Operant conditioning is learning through consequence It focuses on reward and punishment. Ratatouille Ratatouille is hungry and perform various exploratory behaviours By chance he presses the lever I’ll do that again A pellet of food appears! Some definitions.... Reinforcement : Positive reinforcement : Negative reinforcement : Punishment : Anything which has the effect of increasing the likelihood of the behaviour being repeated Anything which has the effect of increasing the likelihood of the behaviour being repeated by using consequences that are pleasant when they happen i.e. food for Ratatouille Anything which has the effect of increasing the likelihood of the behaviour being repeated by using consequences that are pleasant when they stop Anything unpleasant which has the effect of decreasing the likelihood of any behaviour which is not the desired behaviour. Schedules of reinforcement When and how often we reinforce a behaviour can have a significant impact on the strength and rate of the response. 2 types of schedules Continuous reinforcement: the desired behaviour is reinforced every single time it occurs. Partial reinforcement: the response is reinforced only part of the time. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vGazyH6fQQ4 Obsessive Compulsive Disorder How can Operant Conditioning be used to explain OCD? Starter… Many years ago, as a child, Rick used to visit a dentist who thought that anaesthetic was just for sissies. The dentist had a grandfather clock in the waiting room. Years later, Rick still feels uneasy and a little anxious whenever he hears the tick of a grandfather clock. Suggest the UCS, CS, UCR and CR in this scenario. Social learning Learning by observation and imitation http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ikTxfIDYx6Q Social Learning Learning by observation … People observe the behaviour of other people (models) … They may imitate the behaviour they observe … Whether or not they do so depends on the observed consequences: Vicarious reinforcement Vicarious punishment Vicarious…what??? Observe how behaviour is reinforced in other people (Copying the behaviour of others - ‘role models’) For modelling to occur, there must be: Attention (noticing the behaviour) Retention (remembering the behaviour) Motor Reproduction (it has to be physically possible) Motivation (there has to be a reason to want to copy the role-model) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hHHdovKHDNU&feature=related a) Aggression Rewarded (VICARIOUS REINFORCEMENT) b) Aggression Punished (VICARIOUS PUNISHMENT) c) Adult neither rewarded or punished (No reinforcement) Result: Rewarded adult is MOST likely to be copied Punished adult LEAST likely to be copied Bandura’s ideas could be used to explain eating disorders, obsessive compulsions and anxiety. How? Evaluation of Behavioural Approach Over to you… 10 minutes Read through Limitations section on page 189. Write these in the evaluation box on pg 11 of your booklet Summarise the strengths and weaknesses of the behavioural approach. Use short sentences (bullet points) You need to identify at least 3 weaknesses and 2 strengths. ‘Preparedness’ Seligman (1971) Evolutionary history has prepared us to be sensitive to certain stimuli, such as dangerous animals and situations. Even today, we have not shaken this off. … E.g. Ohman et al (2000) … Participants could be conditioned to fear pictures of spiders, but they could not be conditioned to fear pictures of flowers.