Pesticide Poisonings

Report
"It is not my contention that chemicals never be used. I do contend that we have
put poisonous and biologically potent chemicals in the hands of persons largely or
wholly ignorant of their potential harm"
(Rachel Carson, Silent Spring, 1964)
Cecil Tharp
MSU Pesticide Education Specialist
Montana State University
----Pro-environmental----
------Pro-chemical------
-----SAFETY OF PESTICIDES----Never write about a place until you're away from it,
because that gives you perspective.
- Ernest Hemingway
 Silverbullet Pesticide
 1939 Swiss Chemist Synthesized DDT
 Paul Humen Muller
 The father of toxicology, Paracelsus
(1493 – 1541), believed the
relationship between dose and
response to be inseparable. All
things are poison!
 “Two aspirins may remedy a
headache, but the whole bottle may
be lethal.
 Anti-chemical agenda commonly
delivered by media.
 Probably due to highly toxic
pesticides of the 70’s to early 90’s
 Media has a strong influence on spreading vague,
panic laden propaganda laced with small truths.
“According to the Global Healing Center, several studies
have shown that pesticides alter the immune system in
animals and make them more susceptible to disease.”
 Not taking into account degradation characteristics.
“Highly toxic pesticides raining down
on Glacier National Park, MT”
 DDT and Dieldrin delisted by the EPA in the 60’s and 70’s.
 DDT Exceeded Human Risk Threshold for subsistence fisherman
(eating 19 meals of fish per month)
 Dieldrin Exceeded Human Risk Threshold for 2.3 meals of fish per
month.
 A pesticide registration takes an average of nine years
and costs pesticide manufacturers $152 - $256 million
for each crop protection product.
 EPA requires all pesticides to undergo up to 120 health,
safety, and environmental tests as well as a routine
comprehensive regulatory review.
 This information is compiled and approved by EPA
 Pesticide product labels are the legal document created
b y these findings.
 Variety of occupational, dietary and ecological tests
 Hazard = Toxicity x Exposure
 Risk = Exposure x Hazard
 NOEL = No adverse effect level
 Acute and Chronic toxicity
Table 2. Signal words found on pesticide labels.

Caution (Category IV)  You can drink the stuff
Herbicide
LD50
Common
consumer
chemicals
Paraquat
(Gramoxone)
~100
Nicotine
9
Triclopyr
630
Caffeine
192
2,4-D
666
Bleach
192
Pendimethalin
(Prowl)
1050
Tylenol
338
Atrazine
3090
Household
ammonia (10%)
350
Glyphosate
(Roundup)
4900
Codeine
427
Imazaquin
(Image)
>5000
Table salt
3000
LD50
University of Florida (http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/pi170)
 Agent Orange
1:1 mixture of 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T
Produces dioxins – carcinogen
The National Toxicology Program has classified dioxins as
a human carcinogen, frequently associated with
soft-tissue sarcoma, Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma,
Hodgkin's disease and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL).
 Agent White Compound
4:1 mixture of 2,4-D and
picloram
1896 – 1985!
 No!
 Not a replicated study
 Actual dose unknown
 Did this contain the inert ingredients
 Didn’t assess delayed or chronic toxicity
1896 – 1985!
Don’t judge a book by it’s cover!
 Long Term Exposure
 Many repeated low dose exposures
 Definition
 EPA mandates testing for chronic toxicity of:
 Active ingredients
 Must classify inert ingredients into 1 of 4 categories
 Usually on rats
 This is very expensive
 Chronic toxicity statements are placed on the product label
(carcinogen, mutagen, reproductive damage, etc..)
Risk Assessments
Epidemiological Studies
Dose – Response Models
Hind-site investigations
No human testing
Human testing
Very dose specific
Not dose specific
Inert ingredients often vaguely Complete formulations and
categorized
multiple formulations often
assessed
Forms causal relationship
Difficult to prove cause
 Certified Pesticide Applicators and Spouses
 IOWA:
 31,877 farmers
 21,771 farm spouses
 4,916 commercial applicators
 NORTH CAROLINA
 20,518 farmers
 10,567 farm spouses
 Navigate to http://aghealth.nih.gov/
 Wheezing (airways in lungs are narrowed) associated
with…
 Pesticides (Paraquat, parathion, malathion, chlorpyrifos,
atrazine, alachlor, EPTC)
 Applicators have up to twice the risk of Parkinsons
Disease
 Used pesticides more than 400 days in their lifetime.
 Strongly associated with paraquat use.
----Pro-environmental----
------Pro-chemical------
-----SAFETY OF PESTICIDES-----
 No pesticides are safe or unsafe.
 Hazard is a product of toxicity and exposure
 Evaluate toxicity by reading the product label
 Dose makes the poison; reduce exposure
 Use buffers next to sensitive areas
 Protect yourself using PPE
 Follow REI and PHI
 Don’t listen to hype!
 Pesticides are only a part of IPM, but
are a necessity to protect our food
industry that supports over 6 billion people.
MSU Pesticide Safety Education Program
Cecil Tharp, Pesticide Education Specialist
406-994-5067
[email protected]
Web Address: www.pesticides.montana.edu

similar documents