Fair and Impartial Policing (“NS” – New slide) Intro All people, even well-intentioned people have biases. We’ll discuss various biases. We’ll explore what social-psychology has taught us. Need to recognize our unconscious biases, so we can implement UNbiased behavior Fair and Impartial Police Officers are more likely to Be effective at solving crimes and handling disorder problems Stay safe and go home at the end of the shift Enhance/promote trust on the part of the people they serve Goals of the Training Recognize our own human biases Understand how implicit biases can affect your perceptions and behavior Understand how biased policing impacts officers, community members, and the department Develop skills and tactics to reduce the influence of bias on police practice and allow you to be effective and safe police professionals During this training… Leave your preconceived notions about “bias” training at the door—our approach is different from traditional training…. During this training… Think about what it means to be an effective officer. During this training… Share your expertise…you bring rich experiences and expertise to the discussions. This training….. Requires active participation in all of the discussions, case studies and exercises. Understanding Human Bias Susan Boyle – Britain’s Got Talent Fundamental Concepts of Human Bias Bias is a normal human attribute—even wellintentioned people have biases Biases are often unconscious or “implicit” Implicit biases are sometimes incompatible with our conscious attitudes Implicit biases can influence our actions Understanding how implicit bias can affect our perceptions and behavior is the first step to “override” implicit bias To Understand Implicit Bias, We Need to Understand…. Whom we are most likely to pre-judge What determines the characteristics we assign to them Whether we know when we are prejudging people To understand implicit bias: Whom do we pre judge? We prejudge people on sight We prejudge “ambiguous stimuli” We “fill in” … What determines the characteristics we attribute to them? Group stereotypes/biases Stereotypes: organize info, based in part on facts To understand implicit bias: Whom do we pre judge? We prejudge “ambiguous stimuli” What determines the characteristics we attribute to them? Group stereotypes/biases Do we know when we are doing this? Not always. Policing – focus on racial/ethnic biases What are other bases on which people may be stereotyped (and treated differentially)? Income English language abilities Gender Age Religious affiliation Profession Sexual orientation, identity etc. Woman/Man with a Gun Role Play Anna: How to set up (See “resource materials”) Implement, hold discussion (SB) See page 2 of resource handout Discussion: 2 versions Side bar: Stay away from “tactics” discussion End discussion with key point of role play… Key Point of Role Play Policing based on stereotypes is unsafe. Questions/Comments Key Points of the “Blink” Response Recognize the “blink” response” Snap judgments, “thinking without thinking” Can be helpful, but can be fallible Replace “blink response” with objective (bias free) judgments “Money Train” Woody Harrelson is an undercover officer. Note: The use of the copyrighted material falls under fair use laws with no intended copyright violation. Stereotyping and Human Bias When we don’t know an individual, we assign a group characteristic to them Often we do not know when we are impacted by biases (they can be unconscious or “implicit” biases) Recognizing our biases allows us to override them—to engage in unbiased behavior. Law enforcement officers deal with a variety of community members…… Mad World Video – Gary Jules Hand out cards Fiske How do people in our society react to the homeless? How might some officers treat the homeless versus person of means? Key Point: Policing based on stereotypes (biases) is unsafe, ineffective and unjust. THE RACE-CRIME ASSOCIATION STUDIES The “Bump” Study Study: Experiencing an ambiguous “bump” from a stranger How did people interpret the bump by African Americans versus the bump by Whites? Result: The “bump” was perceived as more threatening when performed by an African American. Replicated to show this was true for both White and non-White “victims”/subjects. The Visual Perception Study Subjects were primed with Black male faces, White male faces, or no faces Completed object recognition task Eberhardt, Goff, Purdie, & Davies (2004). Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. Levels of Degradation Frame25 141 Frame Crime Object Crime Object Crime Neutral Objects Hypotheses If the Black-crime association impacts our visual perception, then: Participants primed with Black male faces should be faster to identify crime-relevant objects than those primed with White male faces. There should be no effect of prime for crimeirrelevant objects. Object Identification ________________________________ 28 Crime-Relevant Frame number 26 Crime-Irrelevant 24 22 20 18 16 Flashing White Faces No Faces (Control) Flashing Black Faces Visual Perception Study: Conclusions Exposure to Black male faces facilitated the identification of crime-relevant objects. Exposure to White male faces inhibited the identification of crime-relevant objects. Be a research participant! We will see slides of backgrounds and then a person will appear—very quickly— with something in his hands. Shout “Threat” if you see a threat [Silent if no threat] Correll Results: Race Made a Difference Speed: Participants shot a White armed man slower than a Black armed man Errors: Participants were more likely to shoot an unarmed Black man than an unarmed White man The Turban Effect Study Research volunteers played a computer game that showed apartment balconies on which different figures appeared, some wearing Muslim-style turbans or hijabs and others bare-headed. They were told to shoot at the targets carrying guns and spare those who were unarmed. The Turban Effect Results People were much more likely to shoot Muslimlooking characters even if they were carrying an “innocent item” instead of a weapon. They also found a gender effect: Subjects were more likely to shoot men than women (even when harmless). Unkelbach, Forgas & Denson (2008). J. of Experimental Social Psychology. [NS] Implications for LE Officers may see danger when none there (over-vigilent) May overlook danger (under-viligent) ($ Train) Implicit bias linked to officer safety and effectiveness; Officers may: Increase their scrutiny of people of color Interpret ambiguous behavior on the part of people of color as more aggressive Respond to people of color more aggressively (e.g., as criminals) Under-respond to Whites, Asians, etc. etc. Biases are Based, at Least in Part, on Fact One example pertains to race and crime Criminologists have shown that people of color are disproportionately involved in street crimes. Economic Status, Race and Crime A = Lower income people are more likely to commit street crimes B = People of color are disproportionately represented in lower income levels A+B=C People of color are disproportionately represented among people who commit street crimes [NS] But, that stereotypes are sometimes based in part on fact…. Does not justify your making policing decisions based on those stereotypes. Such decisions can be unsafe, ineffective or unjust. Crash Scene: The Streets of Los Angeles Usage of the copyrighted material falls under fair use laws with no intended copyright violation. Key Point Policing based on biases is unsafe, ineffective, and unjust Implicit Bias Manifests in NonPrejudiced People [NS] Implicit bias manifests even in nonprejudiced people Exists even in individuals who consciously hold non-prejudice ideals/attitudes EX: Many minorities have a racecrime/danger implicit bias (Bump Study)…. [NS] Some think: Biased policing is “someone else’s issue” Often think that because of their progressive attitudes towards other groups, they must be bias free Quite likely: They are wrong. Addressing Our Implicit Biases [NS] Two remedies for our implicit bias “affliction” Reducing our implicit biases Recognizing our biases and thwart their impact on behavior. Reducing Implicit Bias: Contact Theory Positive contact between members of groups improves inter-group attitudes and reduces both explicit and implicit biases. POSITIVE (e.g., people’s experiences with police) Examples? Personal Contacts and Implicit Biases in Officers Peruche and Plant (2005) Measured implicit bias on the part of officers Shoot/don’t shoot simulator to measure implicit bias Surveys too Police, too, manifest implicit racial bias But implicit racial/ethnic bias is weaker in officers who report positive interpersonal contacts with racial/ethnic minorities [NS] Reducing implicit biases by “Unlinking Stereotypes” Difficult to undo our implicit biases….took lifetime BUT police firearms training seems to help us unlink the stereotypes we associate with groups (e.g., minorities and danger) How might this work? Repeatedly exposed to random pairing of threat and race (and other demographics) Simulator training can help us unlink: Correll Study Number 2 Methods: Both civilians and cops, shoot don’t shoot simulator Speed: Both police and civilians exhibited robust racial bias Errors: Bias was less likely to manifest itself in the decisions by police. Bottom Line: Police made the correct decisions….. Interpretation: High quality, role play use-of-force training helps police “unlink” race & crime for splitsecond use-of-force decisions. [Remedy #1: Reduce implicit biases] [NS] Remedy #2: Recognize our biases and thwart their impact Implementing “Controlled (unbiased) Behavior” If we recognize our biases, we can implement “controlled behaviors” that override our (natural) implicit biases. Examples? In fact, science: People who recognize their biases and are motivated (wellmeaning) can override. Fundamental Concepts of Human Bias, In Summary Bias is a normal human attribute—even wellintentioned people have biases Biases are often unconscious or “implicit” Implicit biases sometimes conflict with our conscious attitudes Implicit biases can influence our actions Understanding how implicit bias can affect our behavior is the first step to “override” implicit bias The Impact of Biased Policing on Community Members and the Department MODULE 2 [LAF INTRO] Previous module Science of implicit bias – perceptions and behaviors Forms of implicit bias with policing relevance (including race-crime) Biased policing is ineffective, unsafe, unjust This Module: Biased Actions Impact Community members Your law enforcement agency Impact of biased policing on individuals Testimonial: Captain Will Hill RI State Police Fair and Impartial Policing Engenders Community Respect and Cooperation How do you and your agency benefit when the community trusts and respects you? Research Demonstrates Police cannot be effective without support/cooperation of the community Community members who perceive the police as being fair see them as a legitimate authority Examples of support/cooperation due to trust, perceptions of legitimacy? Your Role in Engendering Police Legitimacy [NS] Your daily interactions can influence community support of the department Some cops think – no one sees/cares YOUR actions determine whether the community thinks agency is legitimate One aspect: Ensuring your actions are fair and impartial. AND ensuring that community SEES/PERCEIVES fair and impartial policing. Police Legitimacy Impacts the Public’s Willingness To: Obey societal laws Cooperate with the police Assist with crime prevention efforts Assist with valuable information during criminal investigations Support criminal prosecutions Police Legitimacy Also Impacts on the Public’s…. Trust and confidence in the police. SUMMARY: Fair and Impartial Policing Results In…. Community trust and cooperation Legitimacy of police among community members Safe policing Effective policing “Good” policing Skills for Producing Fair, Impartial and Effective Policing RECRUIT MODULE 3 Goals of the Training Recognize your own human biases Understand how implicit biases can affect our perceptions and behavior Understand how biased policing impacts community members and the department Develop skills and tactics to reduce the influence of bias on police practice and allow us to be effective and safe police professionals Fundamental Concepts of Human Bias Bias is a normal human attribute—even wellintentioned people have biases Biases are often unconscious or “implicit” Implicit biases are sometimes incompatible with our conscious attitudes Implicit biases can influence our actions Understanding implicit bias or is the first step to “override” implicit bias [NS] Two ways we can impact on our biases Reduce Recognize [NS] This session: Learn/apply skills to promote FIP Good for anyone…. But especially police. Fair and Impartial Police Officers are more likely to Be effective at solving crimes and handling disorder problems Stay safe and go home at the end of the shift Enhance/promote trust on the part of the people they serve Pantomime Pantomime Debrief Some saw: Medical emergency, crime in progress, etc. Point: People can interpret same stimuli differently Challenge what you think you see Domestic Violence Role Play [NS] DV Debrief Whom did the responding team initially think was the abuser? On what did they base that assumption? What skills do officers need to ID the correct offender? Side Bar Discussion can take one of two directions depending on team performance: Team went for the guy Team correctly ID’d female abuser Reinforce this correct response: How? Did they “Correct” for their initial responses? Focused on behavior not biases? How might other officers have incorrectly gone for the guy. [NS] Both exercises related to our first skill Recognize your implicit biases [pantomime, DV]….. [NS] Difficult to rid ourselves of biases We can make sure our biases don’t impact behavior Recognize Override [NS] Examples Taylor: Runs tags only on young Hispanics males What’s wrong with this? How might he correct this? [relevant research…] Meehan and Ponder (2002) Found that police were more likely to run warrant checks on African Americans than Whites in white neighborhoods…. but less likely to find warrants on the African Americans compared to the Whites. [NS] Other examples: Becker: At crash scenes, always approaches driver of nice car first Officer Michaels: Recognizes that, on minor traffic violations, he only writes citations for men (gives women warnings). Lessons from role plays and Taylor, Becker, Michaels: Recognize your implicit biases, challenge what you think you see Implement controlled responses Test yourself: “Would I be proceeding this way, but for the fact that this person is………” Beware: “Gut reactions” might be based on your (implicit) biases…… [NS: Instead of gut reactions] Rely on facts, intelligence, other valid information Focus on facts at hand Gather additional information Use critical judgment Do not let gender, race, age, etc. inappropriately impact assumptions Don’t be “Susan Boyled” [Restate] Skill #1: Recognize your implicit biases and implement “controlled (unbiased) responses” … [Other] Skills to Produce Fair, Impartial and Effective Policing Avoid “profiling by proxy” Analyze options with a fair and impartial policing lens Reduce ambiguity: slow it down Reduce ambiguity: engage with the community. Skill #2: Avoid “Profiling by Proxy” [NS] Our message has been: “Recognize your OWN biases” This skill (Profiling by Proxy): Beware other people’s implicit biases Don’t let THEIR biases impact YOUR behavior “Birmingham cop” video: What Do would you do and why? you have to intervene? Do you really have to respond to every behavior the public finds offensive? Does a couple have the right to do what they are doing? Are they doing anything illegal? What’s the down side to intervening? [NS] Lesson: Avoid Profiling by Proxy You do not have to intervene in all situations. You must use critical judgment. Throughout this training: You are learning to recognize/handle your OWN biases… Here we emphasize: Do not let others’ biases impact on your behavior. Skill #3: Analyze Your Options with a “Fair and Impartial Policing” (FIP) Lens Scenario A woman in an all-White neighborhood calls 9-1-1 to report a “suspicious man in a car” out in front of her house. It appears that the only thing that is “suspicious” is that the man is Black; she is unable to articulate or identify any behaviors that indicate criminal activity. In your teach-back groups: What are your options and the pros/cons of each? Point of discussion Not one right answer Point (skill): Think about options with a “fair and impartial policing lens” Think about the perspective of the person in the car… [NS] Revised scenario Same circumstance, but this time the man fits the description of a person in a vehicle who committed a home burglary in the area. You approach and question. He convinces you he is not the burglar He is angry and accuses you of biased policing How might you respond? [NS] Responses Key = Reduce frustration/anger Provide specific info on recent burglary How he matched BOLO Demonstrate empathy Apologize for inconvenience Tell him how to follow up [NS] Yet another scenario You have made a legitimate traffic stop and the woman in that situation accuses you of stopping her because she is Hispanic. How do you respond? How do officers mess this up? [car door conversation….downhill] [NS] Our suggested response “I am sorry that you feel that way, but I stopped you because…..” Acknowledges the person’s concern Steers conversation back to business. [Summary of Skill #3] With Your FIP Lens… Challenge what you think you see Recognize your own biases Recognize others’ biases Consider bias-free options Consider the viewpoint of people with whom you are interacting Minimize negative impacts (including potential perceptions of biased-policing) with strong communication skills Skills #4 and #5: Reduce Ambiguity #4: When feasible, “slow it down” #5: Engage with community members [NS] Why reduce ambiguity? In discussion of Susan Boyle: We prejudge people who are “ambiguous stimuli” Attribute group stereotypes to them Do not always know this is happening [NS] #4: Reduce ambiguity, slow it down Man on a Porch exercise See your resource materials “Man on the Porch, Recruit Handout” [NS] Key Point Officers acted quickly and a tragic outcome was produced They misread cues. Bias might have impacted their decisions. When you can, slow it down. Reduce ambiguity Gather more information before you act (if you can) So you don’t act on your biases. Skill #5: Reduce ambiguity, engage with community members Contact Theory: Revisited Positive contact between members of groups improves inter-group attitudes and reduces both explicit and implicit biases. Positive contact reduces ambiguity about individuals and groups Get to know your communities… Write down three very specific things you could do in a week’s time to engage with members of a community. Think of youths, parents, other adults, business owners. [Summary] Skills #4 and #5: Reduce Ambiguity #4: When feasible, “slow it down” #5: Engage with community members Summary of Key Points: Module 1 All people, even well-intentioned people have biases They can be “implicit” (unconscious) Susan Boyle: We prejudge, We fill them in, Often we don’t know [Sum, Module 1 Cont.] Even though stereotypes might be based in part on fact (remember Sandra Bullock)….. Policing based on biases can be unsafe, ineffective and unjust Shoot don’t shoot (not shooting white…..) $ Train Treating homeless Man/woman with gun and DV role plays Summary of Key Points: Module 2 Biased policing has negative consequences for community members and the department Biased policing erodes community trust Community trust is essential for cooperation and support of officers and the department Community trust is essential for police legitimacy Module 3: To be a fair and impartial officer, you need to Recognize your implicit biases and implement “controlled (unbiased) responses” Avoid “profiling by proxy” Analyze options with a fair and impartial policing lens Reduce ambiguity: (a) slow it down, and (b) engage with the community. We hope this training… Better understanding science of human bias Renewed your appreciation of negative impact You learned skills ….will serve you. Thank you!!