PRINCIPLES OF REMOTE SENSING Lecture 2 History and development of Remote Sensing History of Remote Sensing • Ca. 1030 AD – AlHaitham (Al Hazen) develops Camera Obscura to observe solar eclipse. Camera Obscura Camera Obscura in San Francisco History of Remote Sensing 1614 - Angelo Sala, an Italian chemist, discovers that silver nitrate darkens when exposed to sunlight. 1666 - Issac Newton disperses white light using a prism; discovers the optical spectrum. 1777 - Carl Wilhelm Scheele, a Swedish chemist, found that silver salts darkened by exposure to sunlight could be rinsed off with ammonia. The unexposed silver chromate crystals are left behind to form a fixed image, a precursor to modern photographic film. 1827 - The first photograph (Joseph Niepce) A window view of the French countryside History of Remote Sensing 1839 – Daguerre, a French photochemist, invents Daguerrotype (polished silver plate, mercury vapors and sodium thiosulfate or hypo) to fix the image and make it permanent. 1839 - William Henry Fox Talbot, an English scientist, invents a new system of imaging on Ag2CrO4treated paper and using a fixative solution of NaCl. He was the first person to employ a negative positive process. A patient coachman - 1840 1830s – The invention of stereoscopes! “Stereographs“, i.e., two pictures of the same scene that were slightly offset and mounted side-by-side, were used. Invented by a British physician, Sir Charles Wheatstone (1838). 1855 – The theory of additive colours James Clerk Maxwell, a scottish physicist, describes color additive theory for the producing color photographs 1858 - The first aerial photograph Gasper Felix Tournachon “Nadar” Jensen, 2000 (Copyright Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.) 1862 – Balloon-based observations Lowe in the Battle of Fair Oaks Civil war (Union Army Balloon Corps commander Thaddeus S. C.). 1900 – Revelation of 'quanta' and 'black body radiation' Max Plank, WilhelmWien, et al. 1903 - Breast-mounted camera for pigeons (invented by Julius Neubronner) Copyright Deutsches Museum, Munich, Germany Aerial reconnaissance 1908 - Airplane invented in 1903 and first photos from airplane were taken by Wilbur Wright over France 1914 - 1919 – WW I Graflex aerial reconnaissance camera (1915) History of Remote Sensing 1930 - Testing of aerial IR film from balloons. 1934 - Photogrammetric Engineering first published. American Society of Photogrammetry founded, later renamed as Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing. The Society was again renamed, and is now the American Society of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (ASPRS). 1936 - Albert W. Stevens, an American balloonist and aerial photographer takes the first photograph of the actual curvature of the earth - from a free balloon at an altitude of 72,000 feet. 1940 - World War II brought about more sophisticated techniques in aerial photography. 1962 - Cuba missile crisis Lockheed U2 (copyright NASA and Lockheed Martin, Inc.) October 14, 1962 – Cuba (From U2) Late 1960's - Gemini and Apollo Space photography. 1972 – LANDSAT 1 Launched ERTS/LANDSAT 1 (NASA) 1972-73 Skylab with series of experiments with sensors. 1975 Landsat-2 1978 Seasat launched with SAR system (failed after 99 days) 1978 Heat Capacity Mapping Mission (HCMM). 1978 Landsat-3 was launched 1979 Nimbus-9 was launched. 1982 Landsat-4 was launched with TM sensor system 1984 Landsat-5 1993 Landsat-6 with ETM (launch failure) 1999 Landsat-7 with ETM+ 1999 – ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer ) SPOT (Satellite Pour l'Observation de la Terre ) Series 1986 SPOT-1 satellite was launched 1990 SPOT-2 launched 1993 SPOT-3 1998 SPOT-4 2002 SPOT-5 Indian Remote Sensing Satellites 1988 IRS-1A 1991 IRS-1B 1995 IRS-1C 1997 IRS-1D 1999 IRS-P4 (Oceansat) 2003 Resourcesat 2005 Cartosat-1 2007 Cartosat-2 2008 Chandrayaan-1 2009 Cartosat- 2A 2009 Cartonsat 2B EOS Satellites 1999 – Terra Satellite 2002 - Aqua Satellite Satellite with High Resolution Sensors 1999 – IKONOS 2000 – QuickBird 2003 – OrbView-3 Web reference: http://www.geog.ucsb.edu/~jeff/115a/remotesensinghistory.html Copyright: 2010 DigitalGlobe, Inc.