William Sawyer - University of Delaware

Report
PC Desktop Specs
 Intel Core 2 Duo Processor E8400 (3GHz, 6M, 1333MHz FSB)
 Windows Vista Home Premium OS
 2GB, DDR2 Non-ECC SDRAM, 800MHz (2 DIMMS)
 160GB SATA 3GB/s
 256MB ATI RADEON HD 3450 (Dual DVI/VGA/1 TV-out)
 Optical Storage Device: DVD+/-RW
 3-Year Basic Limited Warranty and 3-Year Next Business Day Onsite Service (or
comparable service)
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Hardware

– tiny electrical
that can change between “on” and
“off” millions of times per second
 Currently, can fit 3 million
in less than half a centimeter.
 Moore’s Law – the number of
that can be packed onto a
doubles about every 18 months (with the cost staying the same)






In 1961 a chip had 4
In 1971 it had 2,300.
In 1979 it had 30,000.
In 1997 it had 7.5 million.
In 2005, Intel’s Itanium chip had 1.7 billion
This has enabled the
industry to shrink the size and cost of
things such as computers and cellphones while improving their performance.

chip (usually made of
– a bunch of
)
and
on a single
2
Hardware: The Basics

System: the basic unit of computing
 Uses

just two numbers:
and
All data and program instructions in the computer are represented
as
: each 0 or 1 is a

: a group of 8

: ~1,000 (1,024)

: ~1 million (1,048,576)

: ~1 billion (1,073,741,824)

: ~ 1 trillion (1,009,511,627,576)

: ~ 1 quadrillion
 Exabyte: ~ 1 quintillion


All the printed material in the world is ~ 5 exabytes
3
Processing
The
and
(located on your
works with

)
to process data
: Brain of the computer




Does all the
(all the “thinking”)
“Process,” or change, data into information
– key part of processor
: RAM, ROM, Cache, etc.



Holds instructions that CPU will work on
Note that this does not include the
!!
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CPU
 We

often refer to
Referring to


as being “1.6 GHz
of clock
vibrations of crystal quartz
Loosely refers to how

one
Older CPUs processing

Current CPUs processing
1 GHz = 1 Billion ticks per second
 The
can be accomplished
are in MegaHertz
1 MHz = 1 Million ticks per second


”
faster a CPU runs, the more
the more
it generates
are in GigaHertz
it consumes, and
5
Dual-Core
Two
 These
integrated into a single
work together to improve
2
performance
 Can have more than two
 E.g.,
core has 4
 Having 2 cores means we can
processing
speed without increasing
requirement (and
output)
 Problem- must be able to take instructions and divide
them into 2 sets that can run in
 Can run two separate tasks
6
Parts of the CPU
size
•
•
The number of
the
can process at any one time
A
of data used by a computer system.
• The system handles this size of data
• For passing data around, it’s the size passed between the
and
•
•
•
•
It’s used to hold
(so
can’t be any bigger than a
word in size)
•
are used to locate data in
8 bit, 16 bit, 32 bit, 64 bit
, etc.
• NOTE: if the
uses 64 bit words, you want the
to use 64-bit words as well.
High-speed storage on the
that temporarily store data during
The
is usually the size of the
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Memory



Memory:
Holds Software instructions
Holds Data before & after the

is
processes it
and
– needs
– can jump right in and get the data it needs



Makes it fast

is
All things being equal, to make your computer run faster,
BUY MORE
!!!!
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Types of RAM
1.
DRAM
2.
SDRAM
3.
SRAM
DDR-SDRAM
5. RDRAM
4.
Dynamic RAM must be constantly refreshed by
the CPU or it loses its contents
2. Synchronous Dynamic RAM is synchronized by
the system clock and is much faster than DRAM
3. Static RAM is faster than DRAM and retains its
contents without having to be refreshed by CPU
(but is more expensive and larger)
1.
Double-data rate synchronous dynamic RAM
5. PC600, PC700, and PC800, fastest throughput
for memory
4.
9
Other Memory



Cannot be written on or erased without special equipment
Loaded at factory with fixed
instructions

Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor

Powered by a battery

Contains

Nonvolatile memory that can be erased and reprogrammed more than once

Doesn’t require a battery

Used in newer PCs for
instructions
10
The
 So

works much faster than
it could sit there waiting for information
temporarily stores instructions and data that the
uses frequently to speed up processing
 Level
1 (L1)
is part of the
Holds 8 to 256 kb
 Holds recently used data and instructions
 Faster than Level 2

 Level
2 (L2)
is SRAM external
Holds 64 kb to 2 Mb (usually 1 Mb)
 Holds data and instructions we think the

will want next
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Bus
 Buses
•
Transmit
components
within the
and between
– data between
•
•
The faster the
•
Wider = faster
•
and other
and other main hardware
, the faster the computer
32 bit FSB > 16 bit
Higher frequency = faster
•
•
400 MHz FSB > 300 MHz


Connections between


Connects external devices to
Different types of

and internal
e.g., USB Port
(different bus connections)
12
Sample Specifications
Intel® Pentium® Dual-Core processor
T2390 (1.86GHz, 1MB L2, 533MHz
FSB)
4GB Dual Channel 667MHz DDR2
SDRAM.
320GB configured with a single 5400 RPM
SATA hard drive.
8X Slot Load CD/DVD Writer (DVD+/-RW)
6X Slot Load Blu-ray/CD/DVD Combo
Drive
High resolution, glossy LED widescreen
17.0 inch display (1440x900)
13
Secondary Storage
14
Secondary Storage
Hard Disks
Thin, rigid platters covered with a
that allows data to be held in the form of
substance
charge
 The
more platters there are, the higher the drive capacity
 Store data in
,
, and
 Data read by

 Big
that maps
to
 Important data should always be backed up!

, but many moving parts
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Secondary Storage
Hard Disks


circuit that allows the
 EIDE
– Enhanced Integrated Drive Electronics
 Marketed
 SCSI
to communicate with the
as
, Fast ATA, Ultra ATA, ATA-2, ATA/100
– Faster than EIDE controllers
16
Optical Storage

s
Data is written and read using
 Data stored in the form of
and

– Read Only Memory
- recording only once
– erasable, can record and erase data repeatedly




-
-style disk with extremely high capacity
Can store more
and
 Stores 4.7 or more GB



is used for recording only once
DVD-RW, DVD-RAM, DVD+RW are reusable
drives can read


, and store in
s
’s, but not always vice versa
– next generation - 25 gigabytes
17
Flash Memory
Nonvolatile memory with
 But
the electronics can
 Available as
 Flash

Insert these into a flash port of a camera, handheld PC,
smartphone, etc.
 Flash
A finger-sized module of flash memory
 Plugs into the
of most PCs and Macintoshes

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