Psychoanalytical

Report
Psychological
Perspectives/paradigms/
schools of thought
Psychoanalytical Perspective
Psychoanalytical
Sigmund Freud
Father of Psychoanalysis, a
method based largely on case
studies of his patients.
‘Psychoanalysis’(Freud’s baby) vs. modern-day
‘Psychotherapy’
Psychoanalysis
Internal conflicts
Interpretations
Hypnosis, Free association
Vs.
Psychotherapy
Face to face
Still probing into childhood experiences
Session schedule
Psychoanalytical
The unconscious mind
No conscious control of thoughts and
feelings
Importance of dreams
Childhood experiences
Trauma
Placed importance on sexual and
aggressive impulses (Controversial-Why
many of his students broke away.) NeoFreudians
Psychoanalytical
The unconscious mind
Freud insisted that we do not
consciously control our thoughts,
feelings and behavior. Instead,
unconscious forces are at work.
What we know now….
High stress enhances, not
represses memories.
Experience has little affect on
personality. (Our behaviors
are not necessarily
representative of our
personality.)
Psychoanalytical
The Freudian Slip
A Freudian slip-"slip of the tongue" in
which a mistake in speech reveals
something of the nature of the
speaker's unconscious or semiconscious desires.
Psychoanalytical
The Freudian Slip
An example might be a
person saying to an
effeminate man,
"Wow! your house is
so queen! I m-m-m-ean
clean!".
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5PGeKNk1oWo&NR=1
Psychoanalytical
Examples of Stages of Development
Oral Stage: Unsuccessful
completion/issues at this stage lead to
oral fixations. Issues with drinking,
eating, nail biting, smoking, etc.
Overly reliant on others.
Anal Stage: Bladder and bowl
control. If potty training is too strict
child will develop an anal-retentive
personality. (Too orderly, obsessive,
rigid.) If training is too lenient, child
will develop an anal-expulsive
personality. (Messy, wasteful,
destructive.)
Operationally define ‘psychotherapy’
in 5 words or less.
Psychoanalytical
Scenario: Little Sammy is acting out in
school. He is fighting with his classmates,
outwardly disobeying his teachers, and
spends most of the day biting his nails and
daydreaming. How would Freud have
explained his behaviors? How would he
have attempted to fix the behaviors?
Behavioral Psychology
John B. Watson
Ivan Pavlov
Behavioral
Psychology is a science. It is measurable and
objective. Looked at behaviors, not thoughts
or feelings, because they are
observable/measureable and are determined
by the environment.
Behavioral
“Behaviors are learned!”
(Through conditioning)
Watson’s Little Albert Experiment.
Behavioral
“Behaviors are learned!”
How we learn
“observable” responses.
Learning by association
Learning by watching
Punishment/reward
systems
Stimulus/Response
Behavioral
How we learn
“observable” responses.
Punishment/reward
systems
Behavioral
Ivan Pavlov=Classical conditioning
Behavioral
Ivan Pavlov=Classical conditioning
UCS
UCR
NS
CS
CR
Bell, Meat, drool
Bell, Meat, drool…..
Bell, drool
Behavioral
Ivan Pavlov=Classical conditioning
UCS-Meat
UCR-Drool
NS-Bell
CS-Bell
CR-Drool
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WfZfMIHwSkU&safety_mode=true&persist_safety_
mode=1
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AsLJgUVwZQ&feature=related&safety_mode=true&persist_safety_mode=1&safe=active
Classical Conditioning with
Jim & Dwight
Little puppy Acorn was nipping at peoples’ pant legs. In order
to solve the problem we paired a bottle of water and vinegar
with an “ickkkkkkkk” noise. Explain how we might have
stopped Acorn from nipping using the principles of classical
conditioning. Be sure to identify the following:
UCS
UCR
NS
CS
CR
Behavioral
B.F. Skinner-Extensive work on operant
conditioning (Rewards and Punishments)
Belief: Any behavior that is reinforced,
meaning it is followed by a rewarding
consequence, is more likely to be preformed
again.
Operant conditioning is learning
to modify one’s behavior due to an
association of the behavior with a
stimulus.
(Ex. Being nice with chocolate.)
It is different from classical
conditioning in that it deals with
VOLUNTARY behavior.
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eu
INCrDbbD4&feature=related
Operant Conditioning
Behavioral
Scenario: Little Sammy is acting out in
school. He is fighting with his classmates,
outwardly disobeying his teachers, and
spends most of the day biting his nails and
daydreaming. How would a behavioral
psychologist explain his behaviors? How
would he or she attempt to fix the
behaviors?
Biological
Biological or Physiological
Psychology
How the body and brain interact to
cause behavior, emotion, memory, etc.
Chemicals
Nervous system
Related to neuroscience
How these account for individual
differences
Biological or Physiological
Psychology
Ex: How the number of ear
infections children have in
the first year of life (a
biological difference) is
correlated with learning
disabilities in elementary
school.
Biological
Scenario: Little Sammy is acting out in
school. He is fighting with his classmates,
outwardly disobeying his teachers, and
spends most of the day biting his nails and
daydreaming. How would the biological
approach explain his behaviors? How would
a psychologist that employs this approach
attempt to fix the behaviors?
Sociocultural
Social and cultural factors are just as
powerful and biological or
subconscious factors. We MUST think
about the cultural context in which the
behavior takes place. Is it “normal”
within that culture?
Our cognitive and learning processes are merely products
of our society and culture. Different cultures have various
normative behaviors, and practices.
Our culture teaches us behavior, which may also vary
according to our society. Our socialization within a
specific culture and society, molds our behavior and
teaches us right from wrong.
Sociocultural
Sociocultural example on a smaller
scale: Multi-generational cycles. -All
members of the family attend Notre
Dame, or members of the family do not
attend college.
Sociocultural
Scenario: Little Sammy is acting out in
school. He is fighting with his classmates,
outwardly disobeying his teachers, and
spends most of the day biting his nails and
daydreaming. How would the sociocultural
approach explain his behaviors? How would
they attempt to fix the behaviors?
Evolutionary Psychology
Studies how nature selects traits and
promotes the perpetuation of genes.
What are the evolutionary or historical
values of mate selection , fear of certain
animals or jealousy?
Hunting and gathering societies
Reproductive Success-We are programmed
to be successful at passing on genes.
This survival of the fittest, 'natural selection', or the
preservation of favored genes/ strongest races in the
struggle for life.
Evolutionary Psychology
This survival of the fittest, 'natural
selection', or the preservation of
favored genes/ strongest races in
the struggle for life.
Why does Carrie want to date the
captain of the football team? Why
is Jimmy looking for a supermodel?
Evolutionary Psychology
Scenario: Little Sammy is acting out in
school. He is fighting with his classmates,
outwardly disobeying his teachers, and
spends most of the day biting his nails and
daydreaming. How would evolutionary
psychology explain his behaviors?
Humanistic Perspective
Non-scientific
free choice
environment is not a factor.
Developing to one’s full potential.
Humanists have a more positive view of
human nature. People are inherently
good.
Psychologists: Rogers and Maslow
Humanistic Perspective
Psychologists: Rogers and Maslow
Rogers: Developed client -centered therapy.
Patient directs the discussion and focuses on
his view of the problem, rather than on the
psychologist’s analysis.
Popularized group therapy
Maslow-Hierarchy of needs. As humans we
must take care of the most basic needs before
we can proceed to the next level in
functioning or self fulfillment “I can’t think
until I’ve had my coffee.” Or a young child
that can’t complete his spelling test because
he has a tooth ache.
Humanistic Perspective
MaslowHierarchy of
needs
Humanistic Psychology
Scenario: Little Sammy is acting out in
school. He is fighting with his classmates,
outwardly disobeying his teachers, and
spends most of the day biting his nails and
daydreaming. How would the Humanists
explain and/or attempt to fix his behaviors?
Cognitive Psychology
Gestalt
Related to Gestalt psychology=People perceive whole patterns, rather
than collections of separate sensations.
The belief that the mind interprets experiences in predictable ways,
rather than simply reacting the experiences.
Famous Gestalt saying:
“The whole is greater
than the sum of the parts”
Cognitive Psychology
It is all about interpretation!!!! (Maladaptive thoughts-I can’t change
your situation, but I can work with you on how you view or interpret
the situation.)
Cognitive Psychology
Example
A cognitive psychologist devised the following experiment:
The psychologist asked her subjects to read the sentence,
The old woman was sweeping the steps.
Later she asked the participants to recall if the sentence
contained the word “broom.” The majority said it did.
Why? Prior knowledge and associations we have formed
play a part in our perception and coding of new
information.
We use gestalt principles to read
“Aoccdrnig to rscheearch at Cmabridge Uinvervtisy,
it deosn’t mttaer in waht oredr the litteers in a
wrod are, the olny iprmoetnt tihng is taht the frist
and lsat ltteer be at the rghit pclae. The rset can be
a ttoal mses and you can sitll raed it wouthit a
porbelm. Tihs is besauae ocne we laren how to
raed we bgien to aargnre the lteerts in our mnid to
see waht we epxcet to see. The huamn mnid deos
not raed ervey lteter by istlef, but preecsievs the
wrod as a wlohe. We do tihs ucnsoniuscoly
wuithot tuhoght.”
Cognitive Psychology
Scenario: Little Sammy is acting out in
school. He is fighting with his classmates,
outwardly disobeying his teachers, and
spends most of the day biting his nails and
daydreaming. How would the cognitive
psychologists explain and attempt to fix his
behaviors?
What is an eclectic approach to
psychotherapy? Why is it the most
common approach?
Social-cognitive perspective
Bandura’s Bobo doll
experiment.

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