Psychological Perspectives/paradigms/ schools of thought Psychoanalytical Perspective Psychoanalytical Sigmund Freud Father of Psychoanalysis, a method based largely on case studies of his patients. ‘Psychoanalysis’(Freud’s baby) vs. modern-day ‘Psychotherapy’ Psychoanalysis Internal conflicts Interpretations Hypnosis, Free association Vs. Psychotherapy Face to face Still probing into childhood experiences Session schedule Psychoanalytical The unconscious mind No conscious control of thoughts and feelings Importance of dreams Childhood experiences Trauma Placed importance on sexual and aggressive impulses (Controversial-Why many of his students broke away.) NeoFreudians Psychoanalytical The unconscious mind Freud insisted that we do not consciously control our thoughts, feelings and behavior. Instead, unconscious forces are at work. What we know now…. High stress enhances, not represses memories. Experience has little affect on personality. (Our behaviors are not necessarily representative of our personality.) Psychoanalytical The Freudian Slip A Freudian slip-"slip of the tongue" in which a mistake in speech reveals something of the nature of the speaker's unconscious or semiconscious desires. Psychoanalytical The Freudian Slip An example might be a person saying to an effeminate man, "Wow! your house is so queen! I m-m-m-ean clean!". http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5PGeKNk1oWo&NR=1 Psychoanalytical Examples of Stages of Development Oral Stage: Unsuccessful completion/issues at this stage lead to oral fixations. Issues with drinking, eating, nail biting, smoking, etc. Overly reliant on others. Anal Stage: Bladder and bowl control. If potty training is too strict child will develop an anal-retentive personality. (Too orderly, obsessive, rigid.) If training is too lenient, child will develop an anal-expulsive personality. (Messy, wasteful, destructive.) Operationally define ‘psychotherapy’ in 5 words or less. Psychoanalytical Scenario: Little Sammy is acting out in school. He is fighting with his classmates, outwardly disobeying his teachers, and spends most of the day biting his nails and daydreaming. How would Freud have explained his behaviors? How would he have attempted to fix the behaviors? Behavioral Psychology John B. Watson Ivan Pavlov Behavioral Psychology is a science. It is measurable and objective. Looked at behaviors, not thoughts or feelings, because they are observable/measureable and are determined by the environment. Behavioral “Behaviors are learned!” (Through conditioning) Watson’s Little Albert Experiment. Behavioral “Behaviors are learned!” How we learn “observable” responses. Learning by association Learning by watching Punishment/reward systems Stimulus/Response Behavioral How we learn “observable” responses. Punishment/reward systems Behavioral Ivan Pavlov=Classical conditioning Behavioral Ivan Pavlov=Classical conditioning UCS UCR NS CS CR Bell, Meat, drool Bell, Meat, drool….. Bell, drool Behavioral Ivan Pavlov=Classical conditioning UCS-Meat UCR-Drool NS-Bell CS-Bell CR-Drool http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WfZfMIHwSkU&safety_mode=true&persist_safety_ mode=1 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AsLJgUVwZQ&feature=related&safety_mode=true&persist_safety_mode=1&safe=active Classical Conditioning with Jim & Dwight Little puppy Acorn was nipping at peoples’ pant legs. In order to solve the problem we paired a bottle of water and vinegar with an “ickkkkkkkk” noise. Explain how we might have stopped Acorn from nipping using the principles of classical conditioning. Be sure to identify the following: UCS UCR NS CS CR Behavioral B.F. Skinner-Extensive work on operant conditioning (Rewards and Punishments) Belief: Any behavior that is reinforced, meaning it is followed by a rewarding consequence, is more likely to be preformed again. Operant conditioning is learning to modify one’s behavior due to an association of the behavior with a stimulus. (Ex. Being nice with chocolate.) It is different from classical conditioning in that it deals with VOLUNTARY behavior. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eu INCrDbbD4&feature=related Operant Conditioning Behavioral Scenario: Little Sammy is acting out in school. He is fighting with his classmates, outwardly disobeying his teachers, and spends most of the day biting his nails and daydreaming. How would a behavioral psychologist explain his behaviors? How would he or she attempt to fix the behaviors? Biological Biological or Physiological Psychology How the body and brain interact to cause behavior, emotion, memory, etc. Chemicals Nervous system Related to neuroscience How these account for individual differences Biological or Physiological Psychology Ex: How the number of ear infections children have in the first year of life (a biological difference) is correlated with learning disabilities in elementary school. Biological Scenario: Little Sammy is acting out in school. He is fighting with his classmates, outwardly disobeying his teachers, and spends most of the day biting his nails and daydreaming. How would the biological approach explain his behaviors? How would a psychologist that employs this approach attempt to fix the behaviors? Sociocultural Social and cultural factors are just as powerful and biological or subconscious factors. We MUST think about the cultural context in which the behavior takes place. Is it “normal” within that culture? Our cognitive and learning processes are merely products of our society and culture. Different cultures have various normative behaviors, and practices. Our culture teaches us behavior, which may also vary according to our society. Our socialization within a specific culture and society, molds our behavior and teaches us right from wrong. Sociocultural Sociocultural example on a smaller scale: Multi-generational cycles. -All members of the family attend Notre Dame, or members of the family do not attend college. Sociocultural Scenario: Little Sammy is acting out in school. He is fighting with his classmates, outwardly disobeying his teachers, and spends most of the day biting his nails and daydreaming. How would the sociocultural approach explain his behaviors? How would they attempt to fix the behaviors? Evolutionary Psychology Studies how nature selects traits and promotes the perpetuation of genes. What are the evolutionary or historical values of mate selection , fear of certain animals or jealousy? Hunting and gathering societies Reproductive Success-We are programmed to be successful at passing on genes. This survival of the fittest, 'natural selection', or the preservation of favored genes/ strongest races in the struggle for life. Evolutionary Psychology This survival of the fittest, 'natural selection', or the preservation of favored genes/ strongest races in the struggle for life. Why does Carrie want to date the captain of the football team? Why is Jimmy looking for a supermodel? Evolutionary Psychology Scenario: Little Sammy is acting out in school. He is fighting with his classmates, outwardly disobeying his teachers, and spends most of the day biting his nails and daydreaming. How would evolutionary psychology explain his behaviors? Humanistic Perspective Non-scientific free choice environment is not a factor. Developing to one’s full potential. Humanists have a more positive view of human nature. People are inherently good. Psychologists: Rogers and Maslow Humanistic Perspective Psychologists: Rogers and Maslow Rogers: Developed client -centered therapy. Patient directs the discussion and focuses on his view of the problem, rather than on the psychologist’s analysis. Popularized group therapy Maslow-Hierarchy of needs. As humans we must take care of the most basic needs before we can proceed to the next level in functioning or self fulfillment “I can’t think until I’ve had my coffee.” Or a young child that can’t complete his spelling test because he has a tooth ache. Humanistic Perspective MaslowHierarchy of needs Humanistic Psychology Scenario: Little Sammy is acting out in school. He is fighting with his classmates, outwardly disobeying his teachers, and spends most of the day biting his nails and daydreaming. How would the Humanists explain and/or attempt to fix his behaviors? Cognitive Psychology Gestalt Related to Gestalt psychology=People perceive whole patterns, rather than collections of separate sensations. The belief that the mind interprets experiences in predictable ways, rather than simply reacting the experiences. Famous Gestalt saying: “The whole is greater than the sum of the parts” Cognitive Psychology It is all about interpretation!!!! (Maladaptive thoughts-I can’t change your situation, but I can work with you on how you view or interpret the situation.) Cognitive Psychology Example A cognitive psychologist devised the following experiment: The psychologist asked her subjects to read the sentence, The old woman was sweeping the steps. Later she asked the participants to recall if the sentence contained the word “broom.” The majority said it did. Why? Prior knowledge and associations we have formed play a part in our perception and coding of new information. We use gestalt principles to read “Aoccdrnig to rscheearch at Cmabridge Uinvervtisy, it deosn’t mttaer in waht oredr the litteers in a wrod are, the olny iprmoetnt tihng is taht the frist and lsat ltteer be at the rghit pclae. The rset can be a ttoal mses and you can sitll raed it wouthit a porbelm. Tihs is besauae ocne we laren how to raed we bgien to aargnre the lteerts in our mnid to see waht we epxcet to see. The huamn mnid deos not raed ervey lteter by istlef, but preecsievs the wrod as a wlohe. We do tihs ucnsoniuscoly wuithot tuhoght.” Cognitive Psychology Scenario: Little Sammy is acting out in school. He is fighting with his classmates, outwardly disobeying his teachers, and spends most of the day biting his nails and daydreaming. How would the cognitive psychologists explain and attempt to fix his behaviors? What is an eclectic approach to psychotherapy? Why is it the most common approach? Social-cognitive perspective Bandura’s Bobo doll experiment.