C Corporations Kevin Barlow, Madi Buckley, Erika Houseknecht, Ali Barahona What is a corporation A corporation is defined as an individual legal entity that has undergone the incorporation process by either direct legislation or by legal registration. Corporations organize business as either profit-seeking or non-profit business. Registered corporations are owned by shareholder who possess certain liabilities that are limited to their investment. Despite their ownership, shareholders elect a board of directors to control the corporation. According to law, corporations are considered to be legal persons and hold many of the same rights and responsibilities as human beings. Because of this, corporations can be convicted of fraud and manslaughter. Aspects of C corporations A C corporation is taxed separately from its owners under the united States federal income tax law. It differs from an S corporation due to the fact that S corporations are not taxed separately. For the purposes of U.S. federal income taxes most major companies along with many small companies are treated as C corporations. Aspects of C corporations Unlike S corporations, where shareholders must be residents, citizens, or hold certain qualifying trusts, C corporations can have foreign and domestic shareholders,. Also in C corporations, the number of shareholders is limitless. Pros The opportunity to use a medical reimbursement plan. Allows the corporation to deduct all medical payments to a fixed dollar amount. The need for venture capital. Because there is more flexibility in making ownership arrangements financiers are interested in providing money for businesses organized as C Corporations. The intention to take the company public Can attract financing by becoming a public company traded on a national exchange Tax considerations-- Tax Free Fringe Benefits Ability to accumulate earnings for future expansion at a lower tax cost than other types of entities, shareholders also have the ability to obtain tax-free fringe benefits. Perpetual life Stockholders have limited liability Transfer of ownership is easy via sale of stock Easy to raise capital Shared management Adaptable for both small and large businesses Cons The potential for “double taxation” Profits are first taxed to the corporation then distributed to shareholders in the form of dividends and taxed again; the corporation cannot deduct dividend distributions The requirement to file more paperwork Required to hold formal board and shareholder meetings and keep accurate minutes of these meetings. tax forms may need to be filed with federal, state, and even local officials. Filing corporate tax forms may require an accountant Forms can become complicated and these corporations have to pay federal taxes a full month before the individual federal tax filing deadline. Profits are taxed at the corporate level and dividends are taxed at the individual level Separate taxable entity Expensive to organize Corporate charter can restrict types of business activities Increased annual tax prep fees C Corporate Examples Apple INC- Apple is a prime example of a C Corporation. Apple utilizes the stock market to sell stocks in their company and spread ownership throughout the stockholders. Apple is one of the most popular stocks on the market currently having a price of 608.24 per stock. Exxon Mobile- Exxon is another example of a C Corporation by having one of the highest market values through the advantages of a C Corporation including, ease to raise capital, transfer of ownership through stock, etc.