King George II Takes Control A proprietary (or Trustee) colony was a colony directed by those to whom a charter had been granted. Unfortunately, Oglethorpe’s dream was not fulfilled. ◦ Few debtors reached Georgia ◦ Economy was a failure ◦ People were unhappy with the Trustees’ rules Georgia became a royal colony in the year 1752. A royal colony was a colony directly governed by the King. ◦ When this happened, people who had left the proprietary (Trustee) colony moved back, often bringing slaves with them. This new seal is a symbol of Georgia’s role in Great Britain’s plan of mercantilism. It was hoped that Georgia would become a great producer of silk and other raw materials for the crown. During the Trustee (or proprietary) period, the trustees believed that the first Georgia settlers were not able to govern themselves. ◦ The settlers were not given the right to vote, hold elections, or collect taxes. This all changes when Georgia becomes a royal colony. Georgia’s first royal governor, Captain John Reynolds, arrived on October 1, 1754. ◦ Governor Reynolds is appointed by King George II ◦ Unlike the Trustees, Governor Reynolds believed that the colonists were able to govern themselves and he wanted the colonists to help run the government. ◦ Reynolds was greeted in Georgia by cheering crowds. In a proprietary colony, Georgians were allowed to govern themselves. A bicameral, or two chamber, legislature was set up to represent the eight parishes of the colony. ◦ A parish was both a church and a British government district. The two chambers of the new government were called the Commons House of Assembly and the Governor’s Council. As a royal colony, the new Georgia government created a bicameral legislature (a two house law making body). The lower house was the Commons House of Assembly. This house was made up colonists who wanted to participate in the government, but they had to own at least 500 acres of land to do so. People are elected to serve in the Commons House of Assembly. The upper house was the Governor’s Council and these men were appointed by the King of England. Their 4 main jobs were to: ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ Advise the Governor Approve land grants Make laws Act as judges when needed People are elected to serve in the Governor’s Council. On January 7, 1755, the General Assembly (made up of the Commons House of Assembly and the Governor’s Council) met for the first time in Savannah, which was Georgia’s largest city and capital. Problems arose between Governor Reynolds and the colonists about money, and in 1757 he was replaced by Captain Henry Ellis. ◦ Under him, the population of the colony grew to about 10,000, which included 3,600 slaves. Governor Ellis was a popular governor, and, under his direction, the colony made economic gains. ◦ ◦ There were more and profitable farms. There were more merchants with a variety of items to sell, which meant that the colonists were able to buy the things they could not grow or manufacture. In 1759, Governor Ellis became ill and asked to go back to Great Britain. He was replaced by Georgia’s third and final royal governor, the Honorable James Wright. ◦ He was loyal to the king, but he wanted the colonists to do well. ◦ He believed that Georgia would continue to grow if: Large farms were even bigger Trading expanded The western lands in Georgia were opened to the settlers. Under Governor Wright ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ Defensive palisades constructed around Savannah Rice and indigo become profitable Silk production grows More schools create higher literacy rates BUT… Schools were for the wealthy More people wanted to be involved in government Undesirable people move into western part of the colony (nicknamed “Crackers”) As a colonist, would you be happier in the royal colony or in the proprietary (Trustee) colony? List two reasons why.