How To Give A Scientific Seminar Michelle Chow Ocean Discovery! Sebastopol, CA Overview • Verbal and Nonverbal Communication • “How To” on Project Presentations Nonverbal Communication “body movement and expression” • Face audience • Make eye contact • Appropriate facial expressions • Body movement (pacing, swaying) • Dress appropriately Verbal Communication • Speak at a reasonable pace • Intonation (tone of voice, use of voice) • Pause when needed • Avoid excessive use of “um” or “like” or “so” Suggestions for Practicing • Practice at least three times!!! • Get feedback from your peers. • Before you start to speak take a few seconds to organize your thoughts, notes and equipment. Appearance of your slides “You want people to focus on your message” • Use a simple design for your slides. This is a professional seminar. • Text must not fade into background. • Choose an appropriate font that can be read from the back of the room. • Size 32 – 36 for bulleted text • Size 44 – 48 for titles • Each slides does not need to have a title. Especially if a title is redundant or obvious. • Spread bullets apart to avoid reader’s brain overload. • Paragraph—spacing—6-12 pt after paragraph. • Pictures and graphs should take up the whole slide. Axes text and statistics hard to read from back of room. 6 Male Female 80 4 60 3 40 2 20 1 0 0 Treatment 1 Treatment 2 Treatments Female Response Male Response 5 100 Michelle’s Don’t List • Clip art when not appropriately used (which is most of the time). • Slides and lines that zip in and out of space. Please have all your text on the slide at the same time. • All slides should transition appropriately (use no transition or fade at fast speed) • No music, unless you are studying dolphins and are recording their mating calls. Planning the package • • • • Know your audience Define terms Provide an overview if complex Integrate text and images – – – – map of study area, distribution understand overall idea/theory/topic images of organism/scientific name repeat the question if necessary Planning the package • • • • • • • Clear purpose/logical sequence Consistency in style and language Bulleted information Prompts for speaker and audience Time yourself: 1 frame /minute Leave time for questions Don’t read your talk Techniques that help • Memorize opening sentence • Note cards • Tough question? – – – – – anticipate questions that poke holes anticipate future direction questions repeat the question “That’s a good question” “I don’t know but…” Advice to Fellows • Practice within a group and then between groups. • Bring laser pointer into class to demonstrate how to use it correctly • Remind students they will be using a microphone More advice • Everything presented verbally or visually should have a clear role in support of the central thesis or theses of the talk. • If anything doesn’t do this, remove it. borders, animations, clipart, etc Listener’s Responsibility • No talking • Listen closely • Think of at least one question to ask speaker • Stay awake (no sleeping) and engaged during the talk Presentation Title your name School affiliation city state Introduction • Introduce topic, big picture. Why? • Explain how you reached your questions/hypotheses. • Define scientific terms. Use scientific names for organisms. • Visual Aids (slides of organisms) • List questions your study addresses. Methods • Summarize methods = Use methods as an explanation of how you addressed your questions. • Visual Aids (pictures of study sites or setup is most effective). • Organize methods to help audience easily follow your research. Flow Chart for Presentation Organization Introduction Questions Question A Question B Question C Method for addressing A Method for addressing B Method for addressing C Results and Interpretation A Results and Interpretation B Results and Interpretation C How all parts fit into: 1. Original questions 2. Big picture 3. Past research Results • Use tables and/or figures to present data. • Avoid verbalizing too many numerical values (especially without visual aids). • Show audience only data and results that are important in addressing your questions. • Remind audience how each method or result fits back to the questions of your study. Discussion • Talk about results with respect to: Your study’s questions Past research • Make logical conclusions about your research findings. • Visual Aids (refer back to tables and figures used in results) Conclusions • Visual Aid = Outline of questions from introduction with acceptance or rejection of null hypothesis. • Big picture • Future research • Acknowledgements Your brain starts working the moment you are born, and doesn’t stop until you have to speak in public.