Literary Analysis: Sentence Frames

10 th Grade Medieval Lit.
Mr. Delhagen
When we write an essay,
we engage in five things:
2. Identify Theme
3. Introduce a Topic
4. Cite and Analyze Evidence
5. Provide a Conclusion
Beginning of Story/Poem
In the beginning of the
Middle of Story/Poem
In the middle of the
End of Story/Poem
At the end of the story/poem…
Finally,… Ultimately,…
The story/poem begins with…
Initially, (main
(feels/believes) __________
because/due to the fact that/
as a result of…
Then,… Next,… Later in the
As the story/poem progresses…
Due to the fact that… As a
result of…, the main
At this point in the
story/poem, the
(character/speaker) feels
____________ because/due to
the fact that/ as a result of…
Example: Initially, Beowulf
Example: As the poem
appears to only be interested in progresses, we realize that
gold and treasure.
Beowulf is concerned with
much more than just material
Example: Ultimately we realize
that Beowulf is a fearless
warrior who holds great
concern for his men.
(Author’s Perspective)
The text addresses/explores The author reveals/
conveys/ suggests that…
the topic of
___________ by
(Character’s Perspective)
The (main
discovers/ realizes/
ascertains that…
The (main
understands that people
must ____________ so that
Example: The text of
Example: The scop suggests Example: Beowulf
Beowulf addresses the topic that loyalty, above all other understands that people
of loyalty.
virtues, is most important. must overcome their fears so
that they may maintain their
In the (story/poem/novel),
__________ by __________, the
author explores/ examines/
illustrates/ demonstrates/ conveys…
The author conveys the theme of… by using (literary
element) and (literary element).
Initially, ________... As the story
progresses, …
Throughout the
The author uses (literary element) to illustrate/
demonstrate/ convey/ explore/ emphasize… (theme)
_________’s use of (literary element) and (literary
element) in the (story/ poem/novel) helps to
express/ convey/ illustrate/ explore… (theme).
By using (literary element) and (literary element),
the author illustrates/ conveys/ demonstrates/ delves
into… (theme)
Example: Throughout the poem, we
see the warrior lust for gold, fame,
and glory.
Example: The author conveys the theme of the
unstoppable rhythm of life by using alliteration and
Topic Sentence (Literary Element)
What literary element does the author use in the text and WHY? How does the author’s use of
this literary element affect your understanding or interpretation of the text?
The author uses _________ to illustrate/ convey/ demonstrate/ reveal…
The author uses _________ to help visualize/ understand/ realize/ connect…
The author includes ________, as a result/ consequently, the reader…
By using _________, the author suggests/ intimates/ implies…
The use of _________ helps the reader to visualize/ connect with (to)/ understand…
The author illustrates/ conveys/ reveals the theme of _________ by…
Example: The author uses alliteration to convey the sense of a constant, unstoppable rhythm
in the lives of the characters.
Textual Evidence (It says…)
What textual evidence supports your reasoning for why the author uses this literary element
(topic sentence)?
For example, (on page ____/ in lines ____), the character/ speaker/ narrator says, “……”
As an illustration, in the text (on page ____/ in lines ____), it reads, “……….”
For instance, in the text it states, “……..”
To illustrate this idea/theme, the author describes “…….”
The description on (on page ____/ in lines ____) is a perfect illustration of (cite description).
The following lines “……….” illustrate/ demonstrate this idea of (cite lines/quote).
For example/ For instance/ As an illustration, lines ______ read, “……..”
Example: For instance, in the text it states, “I treated them politely,/Offering the edge of my
razor-sharp sword” (lines 560-1).
Paraphrase (I say…)
What is the textual evidence saying IN YOUR OWN WORDS?
In other words, the character/speaker/narrator is saying…
In this quote, (the author/character/speaker) compares/describes/refers to…
At this point in the story/poem, the character/speaker is…
That is to say, the character/speaker (feels/thinks/believes)…
In the literal sense/ Literally speaking…
In the figurative sense/ Figuratively speaking…
Here we note that the character/speaker…
To sum up/ In summary, the character/speaker…
According to the author/speaker, …
Basically, the author/speaker is saying…
In making this comment (or doing this action), the character/speaker is …
Example: In other words, Beowulf is using verbal irony to express that he was ruthless and showed no
mercy to the sea monsters.
Analysis (And so…)
What is your interpretation of this textual evidence? How does it connect to your topic
From this, (I/we/it) can infer that…
This can be interpreted to mean…
(The author/This) suggests/conveys/intimates/implies/illustrates…
________ refers to/represents __________.
Possibly/Maybe the character/speaker is…
________ may suggest (is suggesting) that…
________ suggesting/implying/intimating…
It seems to me that…
On a figurative level/Figuratively speaking, …
Like/similar to _____, _____ is compared to _____ because ______.
The author makes this comparison because/so that…
Example: From this, we can infer that Beowulf is coldblooded when it comes to fighting his enemies.
Claim (Rephrase)
As one can see,/Upon examination, the
use of _______ and ______ in the text
helps to convey…
To sum up,/In summary, the author
conveys the theme of _____ by using
(literary element) and (literary
From this analysis, we can see that
author uses (literary element) to
explore/emphasize (theme).
Personal Reflection
The author’s use of these literary
elements is very effective/successful/
powerful because…
After reading ________, I realize(d)…
Due to/As a result these effective/
successful/ powerful use of these
literary elements, the author is able
Reading ______ helps me to
understand/makes me realize that…
The effective/successful/powerful use
of these literary elements results in…
This story/poem is reminiscent of…
Upon reflection, the (story/novel/
poem) is reminiscent of…
By reading ________, it reminds me of
Upon analysis of (title of story/poem),
the author’s use of (literary element)
and (literary element) in the story/
poem/novel helps to
Overall/Upon examination…
Example: Upon examination, through
the use of alliteration, the scop conveys
an attitude about the unstoppable
rhythm of life.
Example: The author’s use of these
literary elements is very effective
because as we read the text, we are
drawn into that same rhythm of life.
After reading Beowulf, I realized there
are rhythms and patterns all around us
every day.

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