10 th Grade Medieval Lit. Mr. Delhagen When we write an essay, we engage in five things: Summarize 2. Identify Theme 3. Introduce a Topic 4. Cite and Analyze Evidence 5. Provide a Conclusion 1. Beginning of Story/Poem In the beginning of the story/poem… Middle of Story/Poem In the middle of the story/poem… End of Story/Poem At the end of the story/poem… Finally,… Ultimately,… The story/poem begins with… Initially, (main character/speaker) (feels/believes) __________ because/due to the fact that/ as a result of… Then,… Next,… Later in the story/poem… As the story/poem progresses… Due to the fact that… As a result of…, the main character/speaker feels/believes… At this point in the story/poem, the (character/speaker) feels ____________ because/due to the fact that/ as a result of… Example: Initially, Beowulf Example: As the poem appears to only be interested in progresses, we realize that gold and treasure. Beowulf is concerned with much more than just material things. Example: Ultimately we realize that Beowulf is a fearless warrior who holds great concern for his men. Topic Theme (Author’s Perspective) The text addresses/explores The author reveals/ conveys/ suggests that… the topic of _____________. ___________ by ___________ addresses/explores/ discusses/examines. Theme (Character’s Perspective) The (main character/speaker) discovers/ realizes/ ascertains that… The (main character/speaker) understands that people must ____________ so that ______________. Example: The text of Example: The scop suggests Example: Beowulf Beowulf addresses the topic that loyalty, above all other understands that people of loyalty. virtues, is most important. must overcome their fears so that they may maintain their loyalty. Summary Claim In the (story/poem/novel), __________ by __________, the author explores/ examines/ illustrates/ demonstrates/ conveys… The author conveys the theme of… by using (literary element) and (literary element). Initially, ________... As the story progresses, … Throughout the poem,…/Ultimately,… The author uses (literary element) to illustrate/ demonstrate/ convey/ explore/ emphasize… (theme) _________’s use of (literary element) and (literary element) in the (story/ poem/novel) helps to express/ convey/ illustrate/ explore… (theme). By using (literary element) and (literary element), the author illustrates/ conveys/ demonstrates/ delves into… (theme) Example: Throughout the poem, we see the warrior lust for gold, fame, and glory. Example: The author conveys the theme of the unstoppable rhythm of life by using alliteration and kennings. Topic Sentence (Literary Element) What literary element does the author use in the text and WHY? How does the author’s use of this literary element affect your understanding or interpretation of the text? The author uses _________ to illustrate/ convey/ demonstrate/ reveal… The author uses _________ to help visualize/ understand/ realize/ connect… The author includes ________, as a result/ consequently, the reader… By using _________, the author suggests/ intimates/ implies… The use of _________ helps the reader to visualize/ connect with (to)/ understand… The author illustrates/ conveys/ reveals the theme of _________ by… Example: The author uses alliteration to convey the sense of a constant, unstoppable rhythm in the lives of the characters. Textual Evidence (It says…) What textual evidence supports your reasoning for why the author uses this literary element (topic sentence)? For example, (on page ____/ in lines ____), the character/ speaker/ narrator says, “……” As an illustration, in the text (on page ____/ in lines ____), it reads, “……….” For instance, in the text it states, “……..” To illustrate this idea/theme, the author describes “…….” The description on (on page ____/ in lines ____) is a perfect illustration of (cite description). The following lines “……….” illustrate/ demonstrate this idea of (cite lines/quote). For example/ For instance/ As an illustration, lines ______ read, “……..” Example: For instance, in the text it states, “I treated them politely,/Offering the edge of my razor-sharp sword” (lines 560-1). Paraphrase (I say…) What is the textual evidence saying IN YOUR OWN WORDS? In other words, the character/speaker/narrator is saying… In this quote, (the author/character/speaker) compares/describes/refers to… At this point in the story/poem, the character/speaker is… That is to say, the character/speaker (feels/thinks/believes)… In the literal sense/ Literally speaking… In the figurative sense/ Figuratively speaking… Here we note that the character/speaker… To sum up/ In summary, the character/speaker… According to the author/speaker, … Basically, the author/speaker is saying… In making this comment (or doing this action), the character/speaker is … Example: In other words, Beowulf is using verbal irony to express that he was ruthless and showed no mercy to the sea monsters. Analysis (And so…) What is your interpretation of this textual evidence? How does it connect to your topic sentence? From this, (I/we/it) can infer that… This can be interpreted to mean… (The author/This) suggests/conveys/intimates/implies/illustrates… ________ refers to/represents __________. Possibly/Maybe the character/speaker is… ________ may suggest (is suggesting) that… ________ suggesting/implying/intimating… It seems to me that… On a figurative level/Figuratively speaking, … Like/similar to _____, _____ is compared to _____ because ______. The author makes this comparison because/so that… Example: From this, we can infer that Beowulf is coldblooded when it comes to fighting his enemies. Claim (Rephrase) As one can see,/Upon examination, the use of _______ and ______ in the text helps to convey… To sum up,/In summary, the author conveys the theme of _____ by using (literary element) and (literary element). From this analysis, we can see that author uses (literary element) to illustrate/demonstrate/convey/ explore/emphasize (theme). Evaluation Personal Reflection The author’s use of these literary elements is very effective/successful/ powerful because… After reading ________, I realize(d)… Due to/As a result these effective/ successful/ powerful use of these literary elements, the author is able to… Reading ______ helps me to understand/makes me realize that… The effective/successful/powerful use of these literary elements results in… This story/poem is reminiscent of… Upon reflection, the (story/novel/ poem) is reminiscent of… By reading ________, it reminds me of ________. Upon analysis of (title of story/poem), the author’s use of (literary element) and (literary element) in the story/ poem/novel helps to express/convey/illustrate/explore (theme). Overall/Upon examination… Example: Upon examination, through the use of alliteration, the scop conveys an attitude about the unstoppable rhythm of life. Example: The author’s use of these literary elements is very effective because as we read the text, we are drawn into that same rhythm of life. After reading Beowulf, I realized there are rhythms and patterns all around us every day.